This course will provide students with an understanding of the current matrix of nuclear non-proliferation treaties, multilateral arrangements, laws, regulations, initiatives, proposals, and organizations that aim to halt the spread of nuclear weapons and prevent nuclear terrorism. We will also consider the role of foreign assistance, intelligence gathering, and the threat or use of force in achieving nonproliferation objectives. The goal is to examine the full array of tools employed by the United States to address nuclear proliferation, as well as how the United States brings these tools to bear through the interagency process and our joint efforts with Congress and our international partners. Virtually every element of the nonproliferation toolbox was deployed to address the nuclear programs of Iran and North Korea, so considerable time will be spent examining these critical cases. We will also examine how the nuclear programs of India and Iraq shook and ultimately altered the nonproliferation regime. Throughout the course, we will consider nonproliferation efforts in the context of great power strategies, alliance obligations, regional rivalries, and non-state actor threats, focusing on how these factors influence the decision-making of proliferating countries and countries seeking to prevent proliferation. We will also consider factors such as foreign states’ energy policies, their goals for scientific achievement, and their economic interests. A continuing theme in the course will be the evolution of nonproliferation efforts over time and the role of law and lawyers in that evolution.