Out of the ashes of World War Two and the Holocaust arose the recognition of individual criminal responsibility for crimes against humanity under international law and a concomitant recognition of universal human rights. This course provides an intensive survey of international human rights law and practice, with a principal focus on interpretation and implementation of human rights obligations, commitments, and norms in the practice of states. The course has three main components: in the first unit, we examine the development of the substantive law of human rights (including treaties, customary international law, and non-binding international instruments). In the second unit, we examine implementation of international human rights in the international, regional, and domestic systems, focusing on UN organs such as the Human Rights Council and treaty bodies. Finally, in the third unit we look at the application of the substantive law and implementation mechanisms in the context of current issues in international human rights, including in the context of atrocities and the refugee crisis. The course highlights selected contemporary ethical problems in international human rights law such as genocide and torture, application of human rights obligations, commitments, and norms to non-state actors (including corporations), universality of human rights and cultural relativism, and the need to protect human rights while countering terrorism, including issues relevant to U.S. law and practice. Along the way we examine issues related to international immunities, impunity, human rights litigation under the U.S. Alien Tort Claims Act and Torture Victim Protection Act, and international criminal tribunals.