International Business & Economic Law LL.M. - List A

LAW 1534 v00 Advanced Topics in Corporate Law: Control and Its Implications

J.D. Course (cross-listed) | 1 credit hour

In a significant minority of public corporations, a single person or entity has the power to choose the directors of the corporation and determine the outcome of stockholder votes. Many private corporations operate with this governance profile. Corporations fitting this profile are described as “controlled.”

In the standard model of the corporation, the power to direct and oversee the business and affairs of the entity rests with the board of directors, who are obligated as fiduciaries to act in the best interests of the company and its stockholders. When a party other than the board of directors has the ability to control the corporation, it upsets the standard model, with knock-on effects for a variety of corporate doctrines.

This course examines the nature of control and its implications. In addition to covering these issues in the context of public companies, the course will examine their implications for privately held companies and touch on their application to alternative entities.

Course enrollment is limited to 32. Students are expected to possess a basic understanding of the law applicable to alternative entities and corporations. An introductory course in corporations or business associations is a prerequisite.

Learning Objectives:

After taking this course, students will understand the following topics:

  • What constitutes control? What are the different types of control and what factors contribute to its existence?
  • What fiduciary duties do controllers owe? When and why do they arise?
  • How does the presence of a controller affect corporate doctrines such as the standard of review, demand futility, and ratification?
  • What devices can be used to mitigate the effects of control, such as special committees, majority-of-the-minority votes, and enhanced-independence directors?
  • What are the implications of particular methods of maintaining control, with particularly emphasis on the currently trending device of dual class stock?

Prerequisite: Corporations.

Note: ATTENDANCE IS MANDATORY AT ALL CLASS SESSIONS. Enrolled students must be in attendance at the start of the first class session in order to remain enrolled. Waitlisted students must be in attendance at the start of the first class session in order to remain eligible to be admitted off the waitlist. All enrolled students must attend each class session in its entirety. Failure to attend any class session in its entirety will result in a withdrawal.

Add/Drop and Withdrawal Policies
No student will be permitted to drop this course after January 16, 2025. Failure to drop the course by January 16, 2025 will result in a withdrawal. No student may withdraw from this class without permission from the professors.

LAW 1521 v00 Advanced Topics in Corporate Law: Corporate Transaction Litigation in Delaware

J.D. Course (cross-listed) | 1 credit hour

This course will explore corporate litigation in the Court of Chancery in the context of mergers, acquisitions, and other transactional structures.

The course is divided into three parts. Part I will begin with a discussion of Delaware’s place in the world of corporate litigation. This will include the mechanics of initiating a lawsuit to challenge a deal, together with the Court’s role in resolving preliminary and logistical issues, before turning to the substantive law governing motions for expedition and motions for preliminary or permanent injunctive relief. Finally, we will discuss the section 220 actions for accessing corporate books and records.

Part II will focus on corporate litigation, in theory and in practice. We will discuss structural matters relating to where to file and who represents a class in competing lawsuits, and focus a significant amount of our time on recent changes in corporate litigation following Corwin. Then we'll turn to other key issues in stockholder derivative litigation relating to the board of directors.

In Part III, we will discuss non-stockholder M&A litigation of two categories trending in different directions on the Delaware dockets: appraisal and material adverse effect (or material adverse change) litigation.

While the class is divided into three parts, we may cover more or less than a single part on each of the three class days.

In addition to reading cases, students will be asked to read parts of briefs actually filed in Delaware corporate litigation. Selected students will be assigned to (informally) argue the briefed issues as assigned. Following in-class argument, we will discuss the outcome of the actual ligation.

By the end of this course, students will be familiar with the common issues arising in corporate transactional litigation; which actions may be brought directly and which must be pursued derivatively; which are statutory and which arise under the common law; and what current “hot” corporate litigation issues are currently being litigated in Delaware.

Prerequisite: Corporations.

Note: ATTENDANCE IS MANDATORY AT ALL CLASS SESSIONS. Enrolled students must be in attendance at the start of the first class session in order to remain enrolled. Waitlisted students must be in attendance at the start of the first class session in order to remain eligible to be admitted off the waitlist. All enrolled students must attend each class session in its entirety. Failure to attend any class session in its entirety will result in a withdrawal.

Add/Drop and Withdrawal Policies
No student will be permitted to drop this course after January 24, 2025. Failure to drop the course by January 24, 2025 will result in a withdrawal. No student may withdraw from this class without permission from the professors.

LAW 1535 v00 Advanced Topics in Corporate Law: Management Misconduct

J.D. Course (cross-listed) | 1 credit hour

Through the lens of Delaware law, this course will review the roles of the board of directors, senior officers, and stockholders in overseeing a corporation, monitoring management conduct, and promoting compliance. The course will consider the director’s duty of oversight, its origins, and how it has evolved. The course will examine whether senior officers owe a similar duty of oversight, or whether different duties apply. We will delve deeply into the derivative action, which is the primary enforcement mechanism through which stockholders can address management misconduct. As part of this effort, we will explore the various stages of the derivative action and consider its strengths and weaknesses.

As its source materials, the course will examine recent derivative lawsuits. 

Course enrollment is limited to 35. Students are expected to possess a basic understanding of the law applicable to alternative entities and corporations. An introductory course in corporations is a prerequisite.

Learning Objectives:

After taking this course, students will be able to answer the following questions:

  • What standards apply to a board and senior officers when overseeing a corporation, monitoring for misconduct, and promoting compliance?
  • What is the duty of oversight, how did it arise, and how has it evolved?
  • What is the nature of a stockholder derivative action, the various stages of the proceeding, and its strengths and weaknesses?
  • Are stockholder derivative actions an effective way of policing management misconduct? Is the Delaware corporate model particularly prone to management misconduct?
  • Can a corporation serve morally good ends?

Prerequisite: Corporations.

Note: ATTENDANCE IS MANDATORY AT ALL CLASS SESSIONS. Enrolled students must be in attendance at the start of the first class session in order to remain enrolled. Waitlisted students must be in attendance at the start of the first class session in order to remain eligible to be admitted off the waitlist. All enrolled students must attend each class session in its entirety. Failure to attend any class session in its entirety will result in a withdrawal.

Add/Drop and Withdrawal Policies
No student will be permitted to drop this course after October 10, 2024. Failure to drop the course by October 10, 2024 will result in a withdrawal. No student may withdraw from this class without permission from the professors.

LAW 038 v02 Antitrust Economics and Law

J.D. Course (cross-listed) | 4 credit hours

This course covers the major federal legislation and doctrine in the field of antitrust law with a primary focus upon governmental efforts to promote competition. Emphasis is placed upon the growing role of economic analysis and trends in judicial interpretation relating to the coordination, monopolies, mergers and joint ventures, as well as evolving legal standards, including the role of decision theory in setting legal standards.

This version of basic antitrust places greater emphasis on the tools of economic analysis that have taken on growing importance in antitrust as well as controversies between Chicago School and post-Chicago economic approaches. There is no economics prerequisite. The necessary economic tools will be developed in the course. Students should be prepared to master economic as well as legal materials. There will be written assignments that must be submitted for each class. 

Recommended: Some economics background is helpful, but not required.

Mutually Excluded Courses: Students may not receive credit for both this course and Antitrust Law or Antitrust Law: A Survey from the Sherman Act of 1890 to Today’s Progressive Movement.

LAW 038 v01 Antitrust Law

J.D. Course (cross-listed) | 3 credit hours

This course covers the major federal legislation in the field of antitrust law, with a primary focus upon governmental efforts to promote competition, including Sections 1 and 2 of the Sherman Act, and Section 7 of the Clayton Act. Emphasis is placed upon the growing role of economic analysis and other modern trends in judicial interpretation, with an emphasis on understanding the means by which courts determine whether unilateral and collaborative business conduct is pro-competitive or anticompetitive, regardless of the particular statutory provision at issue.

Mutually Excluded Courses: Students may not receive credit for both this course and Antitrust Economics and Law or Antitrust Law: A Survey from the Sherman Act of 1890 to Today’s Progressive Movement.

Note: J.D. Students: Registration for this course will be open to Evening Division students only during the initial J.D. student registration windows. Full-time Day Division students will be able to add or waitlist this course at a later date. Date TBA.

LAW 038 v05 Antitrust Law

J.D. Course (cross-listed) | 3 credit hours

This class will serve as a basic survey and introduction to U.S. antitrust law, including coverage of recent critiques and policy developments.  As such, the reading will include the traditional case law, but also some examples of proposed legislation and contemporary advocacy material from policy activists.  Thus, we will learn the basics of antitrust doctrine but also seek to understand the merits (or lack thereof) of contemporary critiques and proposed policy responses. 

Mutually Excluded Courses: Students may not receive credit for both this course and Antitrust Economics and Law or Antitrust Law: A Survey from the Sherman Act of 1890 to Today’s Progressive Movement.

LAW 038 v06 Antitrust Law

J.D. Course (cross-listed) | 3 credit hours

Description forthcoming. 

Mutually Excluded Courses: Students may not receive credit for both this course and Antitrust Economics and Law or Antitrust Law: A Survey from the Sherman Act of 1890 to Today’s Progressive Movement.

LAW 1396 v00 Antitrust Law Seminar: Case Development and Litigation Strategy

J.D. Seminar (cross-listed) | 2-3 credit hours

This course explores the process of raising and defending against antitrust challenges. Through a series of contemporary case studies, we will examine the resolution of antitrust disputes, focusing on the substantive strategies and procedural tools available to the litigants. In the context of these case studies, we will discuss criminal indictments, plea agreements and the DOJ's leniency policy, sufficiency of pleading, presumptions and burdens of proof, rules of evidence (including the use of expert evidence), dispositive pretrial motions, class actions and class action settlement strategies, temporary restraining orders and preliminary injunctions, treble damage judgments, interlocutory and final appeals, and Supreme Court review. There will be no exam but a paper will be required.

Recommended: Antitrust Law, Antitrust Economics and Law, or Antitrust Law: A Survey from the Sherman Act of 1890 to Today’s Progressive Movement.

Note: This seminar requires a paper. Students must register for the 3-credit section of the seminar if they wish to write a paper fulfilling the Upperclass Legal Writing Requirement. The paper requirements of the 2-credit section will not fulfill the Upperclass Legal Writing Requirement.

LAW 038 v03 Antitrust Law: A Survey from the Sherman Act of 1890 to Today’s Progressive Movement

J.D. Course (cross-listed) | 3 credit hours

This class will serve as a basic survey and introduction to U.S. antitrust law, but with as much focus on the historical evolution of antitrust policy objectives as on antitrust case law. The course readings will therefore include historical analyses, scholarly commentaries, proposed legislation, and contemporary advocacy material from policy activists in addition to a narrowed selection of traditional case law. The objective of this course will be not just to learn the basics of antitrust doctrine but to understand and assess contemporary critiques and proposed policy responses to the current state of that doctrine.

Mutually Excluded Courses: Students may not receive credit for both this course and Antitrust Law or Antitrust Economics and Law.

LAW 050 v01 Aviation Law

J.D. Course (cross-listed) | 2 credit hours

The course, taught by practitioners in the field, covers contemporary and cutting-edge aviation topics such as international commercial aviation, aviation security, and the integration of advanced aviation (i.e., drones and advanced air mobility aircraft) into the national airspace. The course material will encompass most aspects of aviation law, including the law of international civil aviation, the economic and safety regulation of air transportation, aircraft registration and certification, aircraft accidents, airport law, government immunity from tort liability, and airline liability for the carriage of passengers and cargo domestically and internationally under the Montreal Convention. Students are exposed to a range of materials, including cases, treaties, executive agreements, and regulations, with a view towards imparting practical skills that can be applied to any field of law.

Recommended: Administrative Law

Federal Courts

LAW 054 v06 Bankruptcy Law

J.D. Course (cross-listed) | 2 credit hours

This course is a general basic introduction to bankruptcy law, addressing both corporate bankruptcy law as the focus, but also individual consumer bankruptcy law issues.   

The class begins with an overview of debt, the need for bankruptcy law, and the bankruptcy process, and jurisdiction.This will be followed by basic concepts like the automatic stay, types and priority of claims, executory contracts, avoiding powers, estate management, and the reorganization process.  The class will progress to cover priorities in distribution, individual bankruptcy concepts and principles including fresh start, and conclude with a thorough review of the corporate bankruptcy reorganization process.  We will also cover current events and address current issues and problems, perceived and real, in the restructuring and insolvency system.

 

Recommended: Prior or concurrent enrollment in Commercial Law: Payment Systems

Mutually Excluded Courses: Students may not receive credit for this course and Financial Restructuring and Bankruptcy

LAW 370 v02 Business and Human Rights in the Global Economy

J.D. Seminar (cross-listed) | 2 credit hours

Corporations today have a global scale as well as an impact that matches or sometimes exceeds that of governments. Their activities -- from sourcing of raw materials, to processing and production of intermediate or finished goods, to distribution and sale -- have major consequences not only for the human rights of their employees but also for the rights of the individuals and communities impacted by their operations. In many countries, government regulation and oversight are either absent or largely ineffective. Companies in turn struggle to define their responsibilities in the face of these "governance gaps" -- particularly where requirements under national law fall short of international standards in areas such as hours of work and safety and healthy.

A robust and often contentious debate over these issues culminated in the development of the U.N. Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (the “UNGPs”) under the leadership of Special Representative John Ruggie. These Principles establish a framework for considering the respective roles of governments and corporations and outline core concepts of human rights due diligence and effective remedy. In doing so, the UNGPs also inform and to some extent refocus efforts that have emerged over the past 20 years to address these governance gaps and have brought together stakeholders from business, labor, civil society, the investment community, and academia.

At the same time, in recent years there has been an increased push from civil society groups and certain governments to go beyond these "voluntary" efforts and develop a binding business and human rights treaty mechanism; this has met with strong opposition from business and many other governments, including the United States.

Even as "non-regulatory" approaches remain the predominant means of addressing various business and human rights challenges, there also has been a growing focus in recent years on tools through which national governments and international institutions could exercise greater leverage. This includes advocacy for stronger labor and other human rights language in trade agreements, one-way trade preference programs, procurement standards, and the rules and guidelines applied by international financial institutions -- coupled with more aggressive enforcement of those criteria. Expanded efforts to advance that "regulatory" approach in trade policy and elsewhere in some cases has been met with resistance from governments and business, but there also have been examples of emerging consensus among a diverse range of stakeholders.

This course introduces students to this quickly-evolving business and human rights landscape, including the diverse set of multi-stakeholder initiatives -- some, but not all, of which include government participation. We will discuss the guidance provided by the UNGPs and other instruments, the range of stakeholders and how they engage with one another, tools utilized by governments and corporations to implement human rights standards, and how all of these interact in the context of both sector-specific and cross-cutting legal and policy challenges.

Among the questions the course will examine are:

  • Which human rights standards are most relevant to business?
  • What are the appropriate linkages between business policies and practices and the promotion of human rights?
  • Which business and human rights approaches are emerging as “best practices" and perhaps even as recognized norms?
  • What tools to support those are being used by governments and corporations?
  • Who are the principal stakeholders and what are their roles and objectives?
  • What are the strategies for addressing business and human rights "governance gaps" at the national and international levels?
  • What are the opportunities for increased integration of labor/human rights and trade policies, and what are the limitations?
  • What mix of mandatory/regulatory and voluntary/“self-regulatory” approaches has been utilized in different situations to advance human rights objectives? Which approaches have been most effective?
  • How are various business and human rights challenges playing out in specific sectors, and how do these inform the debate about different approaches?

To address these and other key questions, the course will begin with several sessions setting out the relevant legal and policy developments, with special attention to the UNGPs. It will also include a review of different stakeholders and their roles and interests, and examination of concepts of corporate responsibility and corporate accountability, and an analysis of the various approaches to business and human rights advanced by companies, governments, labor, civil society, and through multi-stakeholder initiatives. The second half of the semester will then focus on how these concepts are being applied in particular sectors to address specific business and human rights challenges.

Throughout the course, students will be asked to examine the various approaches and differing roles of key stakeholders, including by playing the roles of those addressing the key issues from the perspectives of corporations, civil society and unions, and governments. The class will be divided into three groups for purposes of this “role playing” -- with each asked to adopt all three perspectives during the course of the semester, both in students’ individual analyses of assigned readings and in group sessions during certain classes.

Learning Objectives:

Introduction to business and human rights landscape, including legal and policy developments, particularly the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights. The course reviews different stakeholders and roles, examines concepts of corporate responsibility and accountability, and analyzes various approaches to business and human rights advanced by stakeholders. The course will also familiarize students with sector specific business and human rights challenges.

Recommended: There are no formal course requirements, but some basic familiarity with international trade and human rights law is assumed.

Mutually Excluded Courses: Students may not receive credit for both this seminar and the practicum course Business and Human Rights.

LAW 1552 v00 Business, Capitalism, and Society

J.D. Seminar (cross-listed) | 1 credit hour

Over the last 200 years, free market capitalism has proven itself as an unmatched engine for driving economic growth in the United States and around the world, resulting in unparalleled innovation, improving standards of living, and vastly lengthening the average life span. Yet big problems persist, including uneven economic opportunities, degradation of natural resources, and continuation of corporate scandals. Considering these problems as pressures on democratic capitalism, the course will evaluate the relationship between business and society. The course will focus on potential approaches to managing the tensions and trade-offs that present themselves when both economic vitality (growth, innovation) and system stability (fairness, sustainability, societal needs met) are desired outcomes.

Learning Objectives:
This course will explore potential approaches to reconciling the benefits of free market capitalism with the values and expectations of a democratic society. This seminar will raise important questions and highlight issues that are relevant to a number of potential law graduate career paths including that of in-house counsel, external counsel, senior management team member, corporate board member, and policymaker & staff. To that end, students taking the course will develop an understanding of:

  • The evolution of views on the purpose of business in society (assumptions and realities of corporate governance)
  • The current problems putting pressure on democratic capitalism (externalities, regulation or lack thereof)
  • Emerging theories to address the inherent tensions in the system (new structures, governance priorities, industry self-regulation)
  • Possible roles one can play in addressing the shortcomings of democratic capitalism

Note: WEEK ONE COURSE. This seminar will meet for one week only, on the following days: Monday, January 6, 2025, through Thursday, January 9, 2025, 1:30 p.m. - 5:30 p.m. This course is mandatory pass/fail and will not count toward the 7 credit pass/fail limit for J.D. students.

ATTENDANCE IS MANDATORY AT ALL CLASS SESSIONS. Enrolled students must be in attendance at the start of the first class session in order to remain enrolled. Waitlisted students must be in attendance at the start of the first class session in order to remain eligible to be admitted off the waitlist. All enrolled students must attend each class session in its entirety. Failure to attend the first class session in its entirety will result in a drop; failure to attend any subsequent class session in its entirety may result in a withdrawal.

Enrolled students will have until the beginning of the second class session to request a drop by contacting the Office of the Registrar; a student who no longer wishes to remain enrolled after the second class session begins will not be permitted to drop the class but may request a withdrawal from an academic advisor in the Office of Academic Affairs. Withdrawals are permitted up until the last class for this specific course.

LAW 3060 v00 Business, Human Rights and Sustainability

LL.M Course (cross-listed) | 1 credit hour

The relationship between business, human rights, and sustainability has gained momentum in recent years with the private sector, governments, civil society, and international organizations, owing largely to the passage of the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (UNGP) in 2011, the 2012 UN Rio + 20 Sustainable Development Conference and the UN Sustainable Development Goals (2015). These developments were preceded and followed by a series of multi stakeholder (governments, private sector, investors, civil society networks and organizations) and specific industry driven initiatives looking at how to integrate these international standards into both self and binding regulatory processes. As a result, many of these initiatives led to an emerging international soft law system of business, human rights and sustainability that is based in the internationally acknowledged body of hard law principles.

Regardless of being industry, sector specific or multi stakeholder in nature, the regulation, de-regulation, policy, practice and ever growing global litigation in this new field of practice is multifaceted, dynamic, interactive, complex and challenges business leaders, markets and even lawyers to think outside the box in order to address a challenging relationship between business, markets and society. This is where business strategy meets risks. Or instead, this is where risks eat a business strategy.  As a result, business leaders, shareholders and their advisors are now required to integrate a 3D internal and external view and assessment on how to address, prevent, mitigate and remediate the social and environmental impacts (risks) of private sector operations in complex environments and with a collaborative and systems thinking approach.

Bar Associations in America and abroad have begun issuing specific guidance on how corporate lawyers should advice their clients incorporating human rights and sustainability standards. For instance, in a Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A) transaction, corporate lawyers are most likely to encounter questions dealing with social, environmental, human rights and environmental concerns. Those advocating on behalf of environmental and human rights organizations will find their work directly intersects with company law, securities law, investment law, governance, compliance, company law and alternative dispute resolution mechanisms to name a few sub areas.

Fast-forward 2020. The global COVID-19 pandemic has suddenly entered this space. It has done so highlighting the vulnerabilities and opportunities in the relationship between business, governments and society across the globe. Furthermore, the global pandemic is challenging all stakeholders not only to become relevant but to re-think, re-imagine and re-envision new models that seek engagement, resilience, addressing grievances, investment, economic recovery and accountability frameworks.

In practice, these global and ever growing litigation trends are also challenging traditional company-led corporate social responsibility (CSR) and ethics programs that have been associated with both philanthropic, corporate citizenship and company-sponsored activities that give back to societies. While many of these programs have achieved several levels of success, for many sectors in society they remain as corporate public relations or green wash exercises and demand more transparent, accountable and remediation responses.  The stakes are high.

Litigation, a growing movement towards mandatory human rights and environmental due diligence and reporting requirements and other types of social demands are challenging companies to be very purposeful and accountable on how they address the environmental, social and governance negative impacts (for some) or violations (for others) of their operations globally and domestically. Stakeholders are asking companies to integrate ongoing due diligence processes that address materiality concerns when it comes to managing supply chains and making sure they are free of child labor, modern slavery and human trafficking. They are also asking companies to address the social and environmental impacts of extraction of natural resources above and below ground, to name a few. 

Furthermore, stakeholders are not alone on this. The emerging and growing movement of shareholder advocacy is leading the way across industries and pushing the way through different strategies for more corporate engagements that drive responsible business conduct and standard-setting activities that push for robust business, human rights and sustainability policies embedded as part of corporate operations across systems and functions. In particular, a wide range of investors that include asset management firms, trade union funds, public pension funds, foundations, endowments, faith-based organizations and family funds are leveraging their assets of over US$3.5 trillion to collaborate around responsible investment while influencing boards and management.

At the conclusion of this course, students will demonstrate the capability:

  • To distinguish between relevant applications of the Business, Human Rights and Sustainability frameworks of international hard and soft laws, in the context of environmental, social and human rights challenges across industries and different actors and how they can be integrated into the business strategy.
  • To assess critical human rights, environment and natural resources challenges currently faced by industries and markets in different contexts through a multi stakeholder and 3D lens risk management approach.
  • To analyze and discuss how different tools and resources can be applied and be relevant to address human rights and environmental challenges, which tools would be best suited for specific contexts and grievance mechanisms that exist for access to remedy across relevant and selected industries (policy development, stakeholder forums and facilitation, influence and development, multi stakeholder assessments, human rights due diligence and environmental assessments) in international development, conflict and post-conflict environments.

Note: Attendance of ALL classes is Mandatory. Students will also have to come ready to actively participate with all assigned readings on the Syllabus completed before class, will have to work on small cohort simulated presentations and submit a final written memo that will be assigned in class. No exceptions. 

LAW 271 v01 Commercial Debt Financing

J.D. Course (cross-listed) | 3 credit hours

This course introduces the basics of secured commercial debt financing transactions through which businesses borrow funds to finance the acquisition of real and personal property. We will first cover the basic lending transaction, followed by an examination of the laws governing secured transactions by considering, in parallel, real property mortgages and personal property security interests under Article 9 of the Uniform Commercial Code. In doing so, we will consider the creation and perfection of liens, maintaining their perfection, lien priority and the exercise of remedies following a borrower’s default. We will also consider other property financing techniques and issues including leasing, mezzanine and subordinated debt, personal property security interests outside the UCC, loan syndications and securitization and the impact of insolvency laws and principles on secured lending. The course will not emphasize math, instead focusing on practical understandings and concepts involving the business and legal frameworks for financing real and personal property and the role of lawyers in such transactions.

Course Goals/Student Learning Outcomes:

The primary goal of this class is to have students gain a broad-based understanding of commercial secured lending law and transactions so that they will be able to collaborate and communicate effectively with clients and other stakeholders.More specifically, learning outcomes include:

  • An understanding of how and under what circumstances businesses borrow capital to finance the acquisition of real and personal property and the role of lawyers in these activities.
  • An appreciation of the varying perspectives of borrowers, lenders, lawyers and other professionals in the origination, documentation and collection of secured loans.
  • Working knowledge of the principal substantive legal aspects of secured lending matters, including statutory, regulatory and contractual concepts, so that the student can be operational on such matters as a new lawyer.
  • Knowledge and understanding of the terminology used by lenders and borrowers in secured lending transactions, and the ability to utilize such terminology in drafting, negotiating and interpreting secured lending agreements and instruments and otherwise approaching legal assignments.

Recommended: Prior or concurrent enrollment in Corporations is recommended, but not required.

LAW 3078 v00 Commercial Space Law

LL.M Seminar (cross-listed) | 2 credit hours

This course will provide an overview of U.S. domestic legal regimes that govern commercial spaceflight activities, including those managed by the Federal Aviation Administration, Federal Communications Commission, Department of Commerce, U.S. Defense Department and State Department. The course will examine existing regulations and statutes as well as current discussions about changes to policy and law to address the evolving nature of the space industry and U.S. national space priorities. Examples include the Space Force, space traffic management, and oversight of non-traditional commercial activities in light of international treaty obligations. 

Recommended: Prior or concurrent enrollment in administrative law, regulatory law or international law

LAW 1452 v00 Consumer Protection Law Seminar

J.D. Seminar (cross-listed) | 2-3 credit hours

Consumer protection law seeks to address a wide (and ever-evolving) list of deceptive, fraudulent and unfair practices. In this course, we will survey the laws, players, and industries that are affected by consumer protection law. Among other subjects, we will cover advertising practices (including native advertising), mortgage fraud, privacy, identity theft, payday lending, and higher education.

Mutually Excluded Courses: Students may not receive credit for this course and Approaches to Consumer Protection.

Note: This seminar requires a paper. J.D. students must register for the 3 credit section of the seminar if they wish to write a paper fulfilling the Upperclass Legal Writing Requirement. The paper requirements of the 2 credit section will not fulfill the J.D. Upperclass Legal Writing Requirement.

LAW 459 v01 Deals: The Economics of Structuring Transactions

J.D. Course (cross-listed) | 4 credit hours

This course examines how attorneys and other professionals create value through transaction engineering. The course is organized in two parts. The first part of the course studies various barriers to transacting, including collective action problems, information problems, risk and uncertainty, and contracting over time, and a range of responses grounded in game theory, contract theory, and decision theory. The second part studies a series of real transactions. Students will be divided into work groups, each of which will be responsible for selecting and presenting a transaction to the class. Grades will be based on an individual problem set, the group presentation, and a take-home final examination.

Course Objective and Learning Outcomes: The objective of the course is to understand the proper role of deal lawyers. It forwards the idea of deal lawyers as transaction cost engineers who seek to increase the value of transactions by devising mechanisms to mitigate common barriers to efficient bargains. We study four types of barriers—collective action problems (free rider and holdout problems), information problems (moral hazard and adverse selection), risk and uncertainty, and contracting over time—and a number of responses (contractual and other mechanisms) grounded in game theory, contract theory, and decision theory. By the end of the course, I expect students to (i) have a good understanding of these barriers and the responses that deal lawyers have devised to overcome them and (ii) demonstrate the ability to recognize these barriers in different transaction contexts and to fashion solutions to them.

Prerequisite: Corporations.

Recommended: Prior or concurrent enrollment in Securities Regulation.

LAW 1815 v00 Decentralization, Finance, and the Law

J.D. Seminar (cross-listed) | 2-3 credit hours

This seminar will examine the concept of decentralization and finance as it is applied across various issue areas:  securities law, antitrust law, intellectual property, and financial stability.  

Decentralization has attracted enormous attention with the rise of cryptocurrencies and decentralized finance. However, the term “decentralization” is a term of art rather than a legal concept—although the norms and general understanding of particular uses of the term can have decisive legal consequences.  In this seminar, students will compare and contrast the contexts and settings in which the decentralization conversation has had particular salience, particularly when applied to Web 3 and blockchain technologies.  Guest speakers will additionally visit the class to provide real world applications and perspective.  A basic understanding of what a cryptocurrency is will be useful to students taking the course.

Note: This seminar requires a paper. J.D. students must register for the 3 credit section of the seminar if they wish to write a paper fulfilling the Upperclass Legal Writing Requirement. The paper requirements of the 2 credit section will not fulfill the J.D. Upperclass Legal Writing Requirement.

LAW 3082 v00 Dispute Settlement in International Trade: A Comparative Examination of WTO, Regional & Bilateral Systems

LL.M Course (cross-listed) | 2 credit hours

This course involves an in-depth look, in a seminar-type setting, at different state-to-state dispute settlement systems in the international trade area.  Although the principal focus will be WTO dispute settlement, the course will also examine the new or re-invigorated mechanisms in regional agreements (e.g., RCEP, CPTPP) and bilateral trade and investment agreements of the United States (USMCA, CAFTA) and the EU. In addition to examining the treaty provisions themselves, the course will involve the close reading of arbitral decisions, as a medium to examine real-world systemic issues regarding dispute settlement, such as the function of terms of reference, approaches to treaty interpretation, confidentiality, coherence between different bodies of international law, the role of precedent, standard of review, the scope of appellate review, implementation and compliance, and remedies. At the same time, students will gain familiarity with some of the leading substantive issues in international trade law. 

Recommended: Background in international trade law and in public international law generally.

Strongly Recommended: A introductory course in international trade law is strongly recommended.

Note: This course will have a final exam.

LAW 816 v08 European Union Law: Foundations and International Reach

J.D. Seminar (cross-listed) | 2 credit hours

How is the European Union rewriting the global rulebook for the digital economy, in areas ranging from data protection law to platform services? Why does it control data flows from Europe and challenge government surveillance laws in the United States and elsewhere? How is the EU adapting to change in the global trade and investment system, including the retreat from investor-state dispute settlement? What legal tools can “Brussels” deploy to rein in illiberal EU member states and respond to foreign policy challenges from outside its borders, including from Russia and China? Does the United Kingdom, following Brexit, remain substantially tied to the EU legal system?

This two-credit survey tackles such questions in the course of providing a comprehensive introduction to the scope and operation of the law of the European Union. The course begins by focusing on the key legal and political dimensions of European integration and the main features of the succession of treaties that have led to today’s Union. Next the course examines the EU judiciary and its relationship to national constitutional courts, followed by consideration of the EU’s increasingly important fundamental rights and rule of law frameworks. Our examination of the EU’s foundations concludes with the EU’s unique economic accomplishment, the Single Market. The second half of the course explores several dimensions of the EU’s growing international reach. We focus on its role as an international actor, for example through adoption of economic sanctions, and on EU law governing external trade and foreign investment, including the complex legal relationship with the United Kingdom following Brexit. The final three classes take up the EU’s growing body of legislation on the digital economy, most notably its legislation and jurisprudence on data privacy as it affects international commerce as well as international law enforcement and security cooperation.

The course is led by instructors with long experience counseling the U.S. government and private sector in Washington and in Brussels on how to engage with and understand the EU and its governing institutions. (Views expressed by the instructors are their own, not attributable to their employers.) Ranging across EU constitutional, administrative, human rights, economic, security and foreign relations law, the course includes comparisons to U.S. legal concepts and cases as appropriate. Students also will gain a political appreciation for how EU bodies interact with each other and with member states and third countries. A research memorandum on a current EU law topic is the principal form of assessment.

The course has no prerequisites. International Law or related courses may be useful at the margins. 

Learning Objectives:

  • Recognizing and appreciating the legal fundamentals and doctrines that underpin the European Union, the historical and current context in which European integration has evolved, and the nature of the relationship between EU institutions and Member States.
  • Understanding general structure and specific instruments of EU primary and secondary law, in particular the text of essential articles in the EU Treaties, as well as gaining facility in identifying and working with a variety of EU law source materials.
  • Connecting and applying legal understandings to current/ongoing political developments involving the EU, member states and third countries, including by producing a professional-caliber legal research memorandum on an EU law topic of personal interest or selected from a list provided by the instructors.

Recommended: International Law or related courses may be useful at the margins.

LAW 545 v01 Financial Restructuring and Bankruptcy

J.D. Course (cross-listed) | 4 credit hours

What happens when a business ends up in financial distress and cannot meet its obligations? This course is an introduction to the strategies a business can pursue to restructure its finances and the legal constraints on doing so.  These strategies include both a public, judicial process—bankruptcy—as well as private, contractual deals undertaken in the shadow of bankruptcy. 

The use of these strategies is shaped by tensions among a company’s various stakeholders about how to maximize and distribute the value of the company.  Restructuring law provides the rules for this stakeholder competition.  It sets forth distributional rules—who has the right to be repaid first, second, etc.—and governance rules—who decides what a restructuring should look like and when they can bind others to their decision. 

These rules provide a background term for nearly all business transactions. As such, bankruptcy law is important for every lawyer. Any lawyer advising a client needs to understand what will happen if a transaction—be it a financing deal, an asset sale, or a litigation settlement—doesn’t go as anticipated. 

Restructuring lawyers practice in a field that is immersed in actual business and financing operations because of the need to understand what a particular business needs to function on a daily basis. It is also a practice that combines transactional and litigation work and offers the opportunity to speak in court sooner and more often than almost any other practice area. Restructuring practice is highly specialized, but also universal because it interacts with nearly every other area of law—contract, environmental, labor, regulatory, tax, and tort—making the bankruptcy lawyer a jack-of-all-trades and the master of one. 

The law of restructuring is also critical to social policy. Bankruptcy is the forum for addressing nearly every major economic problem. It determines who bears the costs of:  mass torts; environmental harms; commodity price swings; changes in the labor market; and secular changes in the economy. 

No prior background is required for the course. 

Mutually Excluded Courses: Students may not receive credit for this course and Bankruptcy or Bankruptcy and Creditors' Rights.

LAW 1442 v00 Fintech Law and Policy

J.D. Course (cross-listed) | 2 credit hours

Technology-driven disruption has upended many industries – retail, entertainment, transportation, to name just a few – and now we are seeing it redefine financial services. The rise of Fintech is perhaps the most interesting industry transformation to study from a legal perspective because of the way it impacts complex financial services regulations. Regulatory frameworks that were created decades ago are being challenged by the rise of Internet and mobile-driven financial services providers. This course will hone in on a few areas where the US financial regulatory structure is being challenged by technological innovation and may require fresh thinking.

Financial services can be broken down into three distinct subsectors: 1) Insurance; 2) Retail Banking; and 3) Investment/Advisory Banking. This course will focus on how technology is transforming both retail and investment/advisory banking. Retail banking law was designed for a world of brick and mortar banks that accepted deposits and leveraged those deposits to provide commercial and personal loans. Investment/advisory banking law was designed for a world of a relatively small number of sophisticated investors. This traditional schema is being transformed, rapidly.

The smartphone is replacing the retail bank as the method by which a small business or consumer conducts their day-to-day banking activity. A 2015 report by Goldman Sachs found that 33% of millennials do not think they will need a traditional bank in the next five years. In fact, 73% of millennials reported that they are more excited about new offerings in the financial services space from the likes of Google, Apple and Amazon.

Moreover, in the financial services industry lines are blurring – financial tech companies are expanding financial services ecosystems and traditional financial services companies are expanding their digital capabilities. New business models are being created that leverage the data and capabilities afforded by the Internet, and seemingly diverse industries ranging from telecom to traditional banks are competing over similar financial services activities.

Crowdfunding, mobile payments, online lending, robo-advisors, and Bitcoin are new phenomenon that challenge existing regulatory structures. The SEC, Treasury Department, Office of Comptroller of Currency, Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Federal Deposit Insurance Commission, Federal Reserve Bank, Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, and Federal Trade Commission are just a few of the regulatory bodies that are increasingly exploring Fintech developments. Moreover, the courts have been faced with challenges to several federal and state laws that were written before modern technological innovations took hold and challenged existing concepts of Federalism. This class will focus in on these particular challenges, will question existing regulatory bodies, approaches and standards, as well as discuss the practicalities of alternative regulatory structures and rules.

The class will proceed in 4 parts. Part 1 will be an introduction to retail banking law and disruptions that are occurring due to Fintech. Part 2 will be an introduction to investment/advisory banking law and disruptions that are occurring due to Fintech. Part 3 will address cross-cutting horizontal disruptions. And, finally Part 4 will involve a high-level assessment of regulatory structures and approaches for Fintech. After this course, students should have a strong baseline knowledge of the myriad of legal and policy issues that exist in the Fintech arena.

LAW 3093 v00 Foreign Investment & National Security: The Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States

LL.M Course | 2 credit hours

This course will explore foreign direct investment in the United States from the national security perspective through an analysis of the Executive Branch inter-agency body known as the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS).  Students will review the evolution of CFIUS from the Exon-Florio amendment, to the Committee as it exists today, including, but not limited to, the relevant authorities, policy implications, case law, and transactional risk analysis frameworks upon which CFIUS.  The course will also examine current events in the national security space to determine how those events have informed recent legislative action taken by Congress with respect to CFIUS and how those legislative changes are implemented by the committee in regulation.

Recommended: National Business Law, National Security Regulation, National Security Law and the Private Sector.

LAW 726 v00 Global Competition Law and Policy

LL.M Seminar (cross-listed) | 2-3 credit hours

This course examines the current state of competition (or “antitrust”) policies and enforcement mechanisms around the world, using case studies from the US, EU, Asia and elsewhere. The international competition community is in the throes of a vigorous re-examination of the goals and tools of competition regulation and policy: has inadequate or ineffective competition regulation contributed to excessive industry concentration, income inequality, stagnant wage growth, and related harm to consumers and society? Or are existing competition enforcement tools sufficient to address actual competition problems, leaving other economic and social issues to be better addressed by other public policies and tools? Do digital markets and “platforms” require special rules? These issues present the challenges of accommodating competition policy to evolving political, economic and social demands.

Prerequisite: For J.D. students: Antitrust Law or Antitrust Economics and Law. LL.M. students should have some previous work experience or coursework in U.S. antitrust law or competition regulation in other jurisdictions; otherwise professor's approval required before enrolling.

Note: This course is part of the following graduate programs: International Business and Economic Law LL.M. International Business and Economic Law LL.M. - List A International Legal Studies LL.M.

This seminar requires a paper. J.D. students must register for the 3 credit section of the seminar if they wish to write a paper fulfilling the Upperclass Legal Writing Requirement for JD students. The paper requirements of the 2 credit section will not fulfill the Upperclass Legal Writing Requirement for JD students.

LAW 726 v01 Global Competition Law and Policy

LL.M Seminar (cross-listed) | 2 credit hours

This seminar will examine the development of competition laws around the world, differences in substantive standards among the major enforcement jurisdictions; the role of historical, political, and economic forces that affect those differences; and the possible consequences of those differences. We will start with a basic understanding of competition principles common to key jurisdictions including the U.S., Canada, the EC, the UK, and Japan, and will compare and contrast these with the principles applied in developing and transition economies, such as China, Mexico, India, and South Africa. Particular emphasis will be on current issues and trends including the role of antitrust in a digital economy, multi-jurisdictional merger control, and regulation of dominant firm conduct. We will also consider the role of competition policy in economic and political development generally.

Prerequisite: For J.D. students: Antitrust Law or Antitrust Economics and Law. LL.M. students should have some previous work experience or coursework U.S. antitrust law or competition regulation in other jurisdictions; otherwise professor's approval required before enrolling.

LAW 3028 v00 Global Drug Law and Regulation

LL.M Seminar (cross-listed) | 2 credit hours

Globalization and the international trade of drugs and medical products have progressed beyond any single regulatory authority’s ability to effectively ensure the quality, safety, and effectiveness of these products. In the U.S., the importation of foreign sourced products has increased tremendously, accounting for over 80% of the active pharmaceutical ingredients. However, varying drug regulations have resulted in gaps in oversight causing differing views on the acceptable level of risk in public health leading to drug quality related deaths and other serious harms. One clear reason for this compromised system is the differences in how these products are regulated from country to country. Nevertheless, the pharmaceutical and related industries are thriving in the global marketplace. This course is intended to be the first comparative survey into the regulatory frameworks of certain key countries, both developed and developing markets, along with international institutions, such as the World Health Organization, involved in promoting the access and development of safe, effective and quality medical products. This course will also identify the major international non-governmental stakeholders, and the multi-lateral schemes and treatises in which they operate that are intended to assist in the convergence of pharmaceutical laws and regulations.

LAW 1403 v00 Hot Topics in Antitrust

J.D. Seminar (cross-listed) | 2 credit hours

Antitrust is dynamic. In regulating business strategy, competition law is only as effective as its understanding of each industry’s idiosyncrasies. Novel business practices reflect changing technologies, market conditions, and strategies. Antitrust lawyers do not simply master doctrine. Fluent in the basic principles of antitrust law and economics, they understand industry conditions and the enforcement agencies’ agendas. Above all, they stay abreast of cutting-edge developments in the law.

This seminar bestows that understanding. We will discuss today’s most hotly debated antitrust questions, explore how foreign jurisdictions’ competition laws and enforcement ideals deviate from U.S. practice, and delve into the industry-specific issues that arise in fields ranging from healthcare to wireless technology.

Major points of focus include the evolving relationship between antitrust law and intellectual-property rights. We shall discuss post-Actavis issues in the pay-for-delay space, including no-authorized-generic promises by pioneer-drug manufacturers and whether the continuation of infringement litigation immunizes a reverse payment. Outside of the life sciences, urgent questions involve antitrust limits on IP aggregation by patent-assertion entities and practicing firms. Further, when does a “privateering” agreement between a practicing entity and a PAE implicate competition law? Does the owner of a standard-essential patent violate antitrust law in seeking to enjoin a technology user despite its prior assurance to license on reasonable and nondiscriminatory terms? We shall also address antitrust limits on patent licensing and refusals to deal. Agency guidelines overseas, such as in China, and enforcement actions in Asia more broadly hint at the direction of international antitrust in this area.

In the larger field of antitrust and technology, some commentators argue that big data and privacy may implicate competition policy. In 2016, Germany’s Federal Cartel Office accused Facebook of abusing its dominance based on privacy and big-data theories. Do those allegations hold water? A recurring problem in antitrust, which has emerged anew in the pharmaceutical industry, is predatory innovation. A separate development goes to the nature of actionable conspiracies where the lines between vertical and horizontal agreements become blurred. The Apple e-Books saga, which came to an end in March 2016 when the Supreme Court denied cert., has important repercussions for the law in this space. We shall also address the ongoing debate about the reach of Section 5 of the FTC Act, which allows the FTC to reach beyond the Sherman Act to condemn unfair methods of competition. The FTC’s controversial 2015 statement of enforcement principles on Section 5 features here, and we shall ask whether it makes sense that the Justice Department and FTC can subject firms to distinct liability standards. We shall touch on pending legislation, the SMARTER Act, which touches upon those issues. A critical antitrust issue that remains unresolved is the scope of Noerr-Pennington immunity. Finally, we will discuss contemporary issues in healthcare-merger oversight.

Recommended: Prior or concurrent enrollment in a basic antitrust course.

LAW 773 v00 Initial Public Offerings

LL.M Course (cross-listed) | 2 credit hours

The course will be a “soup to nuts” securities offering course, focusing on the legal aspects of conducting an IPO for a U.S. issuer on a Form S-1 and advising the issuer about its future responsibilities as a newly public company. Young lawyers entering a securities practice often find that their knowledge of securities-law principles does not always prepare them for day-to-day challenges of practice in this area. This course is designed to fill those gaps by providing students with an understanding of the securities offering process as well as the tools and skills needed to perform tasks required to work on securities offerings.

The major topics that will be covered include laws relating to securities offerings, listing on the New York Stock Exchange, underwriters and liabilities, underwriting agreements and the agreement among underwriters, financial statements, accounting issues, comfort letters, the securities act registration process (including the SEC comment and review process), law firm opinions and post-closing reporting obligations. The course will also provide an in-depth analysis of certain sections of the Form S-1, including the Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations section and the risk factors section.

Prerequisite: Corporations; Securities Regulation.

LAW 226 v00 Intellectual Property in World Trade

J.D. Course (cross-listed) | 3 credit hours

The knowledge, technological inventions, creative works and accumulated experience and expertise of the professional workforce increasingly drives the global economy. Unlike physical capital, this intellectual capital cannot readily be confined to the territorial setting of its origin. The development of cohesive norms to protect intellectual properties on a global basis has thus proven to be an enormous challenge. This course considers this effort by addressing the core international agreements governing intellectual property; norms and norm-making in the international intellectual property rights system; dispute settlement and the enforcement of rights; and tensions arising between intellectual property rights and distinct legal and cultural values.

Mutually Excluded Courses: Students may not receive credit for this course and International Intellectual Property and Development and the graduate course, International Protection of Intellectual Property Through the WTO.

Note: Enrollment in the LAWG section of the seminar is restricted to students in the Technology Law and Policy LL.M. and the Master of Law and Technology programs.

LAW 2079 v00 International and Comparative Antitrust Law

LL.M Course (cross-listed) | 2 credit hours

More than a hundred countries have enacted competition laws and modeled their laws either on the U.S. or on the EU system. This course will focus on the U.S. and the EU antitrust regimes by comparing and contrasting their principles and procedures. Some other jurisdictions at the center of the international antitrust arena, such as China and Brazil, will also be discussed. This course will start with an overview of the institutional design and of the substantive standards applied by the FTC/DOJ in the U.S. and by the European Commission in the EU, and will then delve into various areas of antitrust law, with particular emphasis on cartels, horizontal and vertical restraints, abuse of dominance, and mergers. This course will also examine process and procedures in the U.S. and the EU, and consider practices that facilitate international cooperation in antitrust investigations.

Learning objectives:

Students attending this course (i) will receive an overview of the international dimension of the various areas of antitrust law (horizontal agreements; monopolization/abuse of dominance; mergers); (ii) will learn to compare and contrast antitrust principles and procedures of the two systems (EU and U.S.) that most have influenced antitrust laws and institutions around the world; (iii) will familiarize with new actors and current challenges of the international antitrust arena. As a result, students will learn how to navigate multi-jurisdictional antitrust matters.

Prerequisite: For J.D. students: Antitrust Law or Antitrust Economics and Law. Prerequisite for LL.M students: None, although it is recommended that LL.M students have some previous coursework or work experience in competition law in the U.S. or another jurisdiction.

LAW 3105 v00 International Business Compliance

LL.M Course (cross-listed) | 2 credit hours

This course addresses the critical role of legal compliance in conducting international business.  It will explore how compliance law, based on theories and principles of corporate governance and risk management and applied in the context of substantive laws, is used to develop systems of deterrence management.  Topics will include:  the history and development of compliance, risk management, specific areas of compliance such as information/data security, anti-corruption law, economic sanctions, and financial sector regulations, and particular challenges related to global compliance.

At the end of the class, students should be capable of: understanding how a global company assesses and manages risk and the key elements of an effective global compliance system; the relationship between corporate culture and compliance; how compliance enforcement functions both within a company and externally;  the compliance function and the roles of lawyers and compliance officers; basic concepts in several areas of compliance law such as data security, economic sanctions, financial regulation, and anti-corruption law; recognizing third party risks a company may face; and understanding particular problems that face global companies and how the law is developing to harmonize across borders.

Course requirements include class participation, a short paper along with class presentation, and a two hour open-book take-home exam.

Recommended: Previous enrollment in corporations/business organizations or other business transactions course.

LAW 1036 v00 International Contracts with a Focus on the Law of Sales

J.D. Course (cross-listed) | 2 credit hours

The course analyzes the regulatory framework of international contracts. On the basis of court decisions and arbitral awards, it focuses on international conventions and uniform rules of law, such as the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sales of Goods (CISG), the UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts, the Principles of European Contract Law, and INCOTERMS. The course includes some aspects of conflicts of law rules, as well as an analysis of the main international instruments governing international commercial arbitration.

Prerequisite: Contracts (or the equivalent Bargain, Exchange, and Liability).

Note: In Spring 2025 this course will meet on Tuesdays and Thursdays, 9:00 - 11:00 am on the following dates: 1/14, 1/16, 1/21, 1/23, 1/28, 1/30, 2/4, 2/6, 2/11, 2/13, 2/18, 2/25, and 2/27.

LAW 1701 v00 International Economic Law and Institutions

J.D. Course (cross-listed) | 3 credit hours

This course will provide an introduction to the international legal and institutional frameworks that govern economic cooperation among nation states in the key areas: (a) international monetary law, (b) international trade, (c) international capital movements (including foreign direct investment) and (d) international development.  A central area of focus will be how these different frameworks interact – and, in some cases, conflict – with each other, as policy makers struggle to both maximize the benefits of globalization and minimize its costs. Considerable emphasis will be placed on the institutional dimension of cooperation, with a comparative review of the relevant international organizations (including the WTO, IMF and the World Bank).  The Course will identify the current challenges faced by each of these institutions in an environment where multilateral co-operation, although increasingly urgent, is also increasingly unpopular. The Course will be interdisciplinary, focusing on the legal, political and economic dimensions of these complex problems. Senior officials of a number of the major international organizations will participate as guest lecturers, giving their own perspectives regarding the key challenges facing their institutions.

The Course will be divided into two parts:

The first part will include an overview of the relevant legal and institutional frameworks, their relationship with each other and some of the key challenges they currently face.

The second part will cover a number of cross-cutting issues that often require effective coordination among these different institutions, including the following:

  • The backlash to globalization and efforts to “decouple” or restrict the flow of capital, goods or technology to certain markets, or to reconfigure global supply chains.
  • The role of the state in the market economy, including the role of subsidies and other forms of government intervention and the debate over non-market economies in the WTO.
  • The efficacy of “soft law” and “soft institutions”, which are increasingly relied upon in an environment where countries are less inclined to surrender legal sovereignty through the creation of treaty obligations or the establishment of independent international organizations.
  • The impact of both economic crime on economic development and financial stability, with a review of efforts by the international community to address this problem.

Learning Outcomes

By the end of the course, students will have gained a general understanding of the range of legal frameworks that govern international cooperation in trade, monetary affairs, international capital movements (including foreign direct investment) and international development. They will also have gained insight into the relationship among these frameworks, which is critical in an environment where global economic problems require integrated solutions. Importantly, they will have gained an appreciation of the institutional dimension of economic cooperation, which is of great importance given that a critical feature of the post-war architecture has been the extent to which the international community has delegated authority to international organizations to provide the “machinery of cooperation” despite a waning faith in multilateralism. Having gained an understanding of the general principles that underpin international economic law and institutions, students will have an opportunity to apply this understanding to a number of cross-cutting issues that are of current relevance, including sovereign debt, the growing importance of soft law, economic crime, the accountability of international organizations, and the backlash to globalization.

Mutually Excluded Courses: Students may not receive credit for this course and the first year elective by the same name. 

LAW 145 v00 International Environmental Law

J.D. Course (cross-listed) | 3 credit hours

The course focuses on international law applicable to the leading environmental and natural resource issues.  It provides a framework for identifying and addressing the legal issues, links international law with relevant national laws, and focuses on ways to strengthen compliance with international obligations.  The course covers climate change, ozone depletion, transboundary pollution and hazardous waste disposal, fresh water (both surface and ground water), marine resources, biodiversity, the links between human rights and environment and between environment and trade, and the financing of sustainable development.  Special attention is given to cutting edge issues, such as synthetic biology and ecocide as an international crime.

Learning goals for this course: To enable students to become effective counsel, litigators, negotiators, arbitrators, judges, or legal advisors on a broad range of international environmental problems; to understand international instrucments and negotiations; and to be able to apply legal concepts developed in the course within different national settings for implementing international law. 

Recommended: International Law I: Introduction to International Law

LAW 197 v00 International Finance and Regulation

J.D. Course (cross-listed) | 3 credit hours

This course explores international finance and regulation as phenomena embedded in the concept of money.  As such, it provides an overview of the theory of money, and then explores key financial and regulatory developments tied to it, including banking and banking regulation.  A significant portion of the class will be spent exploring how these phenomena apply to digital assets, including native cryptocurrencies (e.g. Bitcoin), stablecoins and central bank digital currencies.  The course also addresses the intersection of financial regulation and international monetary law by surveying the 2008 financial crisis, the European debt crisis, recent attempts to internationalize the renminbi, and the future of the dollar as an international currency.

Prerequisite: Prior enrollment in Corporations. Prior or concurrent enrollment in Securities Regulation.

Note: The first class is not mandatory, though it is highly advised.

Note for LL.M. students: The LAWG section of this course requires departmental permission. Please contact lawgradprog@georgetown.edu to request permission.

LAW 820 v01 International Protection of Intellectual Property Through the WTO

LL.M Course | 2 credit hours

This course deals with international protection of intellectual property through the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the WTO agreements which cover intellectual property: the TRIPS Agreement, The Paris Convention and the Berne Convention. The course will also cover the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the Dispute Settlement Understanding, which are essential in enforcing these agreements.

The course examines in detail the relevant U.S. law and how the extraterritorial application of these laws effects international enforcement of intellectual property. These laws are Section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930 which prohibits the importation of articles into the United States which infringe U.S. patents, trademarks, or copyrights, and Section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974 which allows retaliation against foreign countries which impose unjustifiable or unreasonable restrictions against U.S. commerce.

The main WTO cases in intellectual property will be read and analyzed. These will include the cases on Sections 337 and 301, which have limited the United States’ ability to unilaterally affect intellectual property law. Other cases will include the U.S. – Cuba Havana Club case, the Indian Pharmaceutical case, the Internet Gaming case, the U.S. Musical Copyright case, the European Geographical Indication (GI) case, the Canada Pharmaceutical patent case, and the China Intellectual Property Violation case. The course will study the Doha Agreement, which allows the compulsory licensing of pharmaceutical patents to fight pandemic diseases particularly HIV/AIDS. Finally, the course will review any significant changes in trade law or existing trade agreements, particularly as relates to intellectual property, that may occur under the Trump administration

Mutually Excluded Courses: Students may not receive credit for both this course and Intellectual Property in World Trade (LAWG/J-226).

LAW 244 v01 International Trade

J.D. Course (cross-listed) | 3 credit hours

This three-credit survey course is designed to introduce students to the legal system governing international economic transactions and international economic relations, with a focus on the World Trade Organization (WTO) and its constituent treaty instruments. The primary objective of the course is to give the student an in-depth overview of the world trading system and some exposure to its particular details. The course will cover the basic principles and mechanisms of international trade law, including most-favored-nation (MFN) and national treatment, and relevant law in different substantive areas, including tariffs, quotas, services, intellectual property, trade remedies, and standards.  We will also examine the issue of development in the WTO and trade treaties and whether treaty obligations constrain countries’ policy autonomy and hinder their ability to pursue successful development strategies, as well as the tensions between trade liberalization and other values, such as those concerning the environment, health and safety, workers’ welfare, and human rights.

The course will also cover current trends and issues in international trade law.  The Uruguay Round established the WTO in 1994 as the premiere forum for negotiating multilateral trade agreements and adjudicating international trade disputes; however, the negotiation and adjudication functions of the WTO currently face significant challenges.  Globally, more than 300 regional or bilateral trade agreements have been negotiated, including the recent United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA) and Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP), with implications for both individual countries and the global trading system overall.  The course will include current developments at the WTO, bilateral and regional trade agreements (including U.S.-Europe and U.S.-Kenya negotiations and trade models in other parts of the world like China’s Belt and Road Initiative and the African Continental Free Trade Area), Brexit, and U.S. “trade wars” pursued on national security grounds.

Mutually Excluded Courses: Students may not receive credit for both this course and International Trade and the WTO or International Trade Law or World Trade Organization: Law, Policy and Dispute Settlement; or the graduate course, International Trade Law and Regulation.

LAW 1799 v00 International Trade and Investment Law

J.D. Course (cross-listed) | 3 credit hours

This three-credit course introduces students to the legal and policy aspects of international trade and investment law, two pillars of international economic law that have developed dispute settlement systems. These two areas of law affect a broad array of national legislation, regulation, and administrative practice, as well as other areas of international law and policy, such as development, human rights, climate change, and other environmental issues. Both trade law and investment law have raised anxieties regarding their linkages, effects, and overlaps with non-economic issues. The United States, European Union, China, and many other countries have actively engaged in litigation and new negotiations in both fields of law. In international trade law, governments bring legal claims against each other for breaches of obligations, while private lawyers work with private commercial interests behind the scenes and often directly on behalf of governments. International investment law, in contrast, provides direct rights to private foreign investors to bring claims against governments. These disputes are proliferating and sometimes overlap with international trade law claims. In the past, the U.S. always sought protection for its investors in developing countries, but with shifts in the global economy, the U.S. increasingly became subject to such suits by foreign investors. This course will introduce students to both of these areas of international law practice.

LAW 244 v05 International Trade Law

J.D. Course (cross-listed) | 3 credit hours

Economic interdependence between countries and across production chains has grown exponentially. Yet, today, economic globalization is under attack. In this context, existing rules on international trade, and negotiating fora to potentially change those rules, are key. This course focuses on the rules and institutions established under the World Trade Organization (WTO) as well as selected regional trade agreements. What are the benefits and risks of trade liberalization from legal, economic and political perspectives? How can trade liberalization go hand in hand with pursuing public policy goals such as protecting the environment or labour standards ("non-trade concerns"), job creation or promoting the economic development of poor countries? The course will offer an in-depth, practical knowledge of substantive WTO law drawing heavily on case law from dispute settlement practice. It will address the basic principles of trade in goods and trade in services as well as more specific WTO agreements on, for example, health measures, subsidies, trade remedies and intellectual property rights. The course will also focus on the unique WTO mechanism for the settlement of trade disputes, and especially on how it balances trade liberalization with non-trade concerns as well as how it copes with increasing trade tensions between OECD countries and emerging economies like Brazil, China, India and Russia.

Mutually Excluded Courses: Students may not receive credit for both this course and International Trade and the WTO or World Trade Organization: Law, Policy and Dispute Settlement; or the graduate course, International Trade Law and Regulation.

Note: There are no prerequisites for this course. 

This course will meet 2 times per week in the weeks of August 30 - September 17 and October 11- October 29. In addition, there will be three classes taught remotely on October 7, November 11 and November 16. 

LAW 966 v01 International Trade Law & Regulation

LL.M Course (cross-listed) | 2-3 credit hours

Examines international trade laws and regulations and World Trade Organization agreements affecting international trade, and the relationship of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994 and other international agreements to U.S. law and practice. Considers, in detail, the U.S. antidumping, countervailing duty, safeguards (Section 201) laws and regulations and the WTO agreements that establish multinational standards applicable to the use of those remedies. Examines the WTO agreements on services, intellectual property, and technical barriers to trade. Examines the statutory remedies, particularly Section 301, that are available to address foreign restrictions on U.S. exports of goods, capital, services, and intellectual property. Analyzes the U.S.-China "trade war" and resulting tariffs and agreements.  Evaluates the role of Congress, the U.S. Trade Representative, and other U.S. agencies in setting trade policy and overseeing administration of the trade laws. Analyzes the WTO procedures for dispute resolution and key WTO panel and Appellate Body decisions. Reviews free trade agreements, including the U.S.-Mexico-Canada Agreement, as well as bilateral investment treaties. The course includes a weekly discussion of current events affecting international trade law and regulation.

Mutually Excluded Courses: Students may not receive credit for both this course and the J.D. course, International Trade or World Trade Organization: Law, Policy and Dispute Settlement.

Note: The 3-credit section of this course meets the "List A" requirement for the WTO certificate program.
The two-credit class requires a final exam; the three-credit class requires a paper. J.D. students must register for the three-credit section of the seminar if they wish to write a paper fulfilling the Upperclass Legal Writing Requirement for JD students. The paper requirements of the two-credit section will not fulfill the Upperclass Legal Writing Requirement for JD students.

LAW 959 v00 International Trade, Development & the Common Good

LL.M Seminar (cross-listed) | 2-3 credit hours

This course will examine the connection between trade law and development, including aspects of international and regional trade agreements, comparative law, and diverse areas of market regulation at the national level. Overall, the seminar will highlight the role of law and regulation as a driver for sustainable development and inclusive growth and link broader legal frameworks and policy debates with the needs of individuals and enterprises. It will engage students in ways in which economic law can help encourage sustainable and inclusive development and will assess challenges associated with legal and regulatory capacity and the uneven implementation of laws in practice. Cross-cutting and inter-disciplinary approaches in the field, such as socio-legal approaches, human rights, food security, the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and gender and trade will also be discussed throughout the seminar.

The seminar will take place in three phases. In Phase I, the seminar will explore the historical and institutional relationship between trade and development, including World Trade Organization (WTO) disciplines, regional trade agreements (RTAs), and other relevant international legal frameworks.  Phase II will focus on different issues and will cover a number of substantive aspects of trade and development in depth, all of which impact stakeholders and communities and hold greater potential to contribute to the common good.  Specific areas of focus will include domestic market regulation and investment, non-tariff measures, regulation of services, trade facilitation, agriculture, labor and environment, intellectual property rights, gender, and digital trade.  Phase III of the course will consist of an in-class exercise to apply the theory and substantive legal approaches discussed in Parts I and II in the context to practical trade and development challenges. 

Readings will be drawn from a variety of viewpoints and sources – law review articles, white papers, academic journals, newspapers and magazines, and excerpts from books – and will cut across trade and economic law, inclusive economic development, and business.  The readings will highlight different aspects of the legal and regulatory environment in the context of encouraging sustainable and inclusive development globally and at the grassroots level. Discussion questions will be provided for each session, which can be used as the basis for class preparation

The course will also incorporate short, practical case studies that illustrate how different issues in trade, development, and economic regulation can be applied from the perspective of different stakeholders (entrepreneurs, countries, and communities).  Seminar members will be asked to assume roles in discussion of these case studies, which will count towards class participation and lay the groundwork for the final paper.  Questions to guide the case study analysis will also be provided. 

In addition to the readings assigned for each session, optional background readings will be included for students wishing to explore a topic in greater depth (additional background reading is recommended for students who have not taken a trade law course, but the course does not have any prerequisites). 

Note: Only the 3-CR section will fulfill the WTO & International Trade Certificate List C requirement.

This seminar requires a paper. J.D. students must register for the 3 credit section of the seminar if they wish to write a paper fulfilling the Upperclass Legal Writing Requirement. The paper requirements of the 2 credit section will not fulfill the J.D. Upperclass Legal Writing Requirement.

LAW 708 v00 International Trade, Intellectual Property Rights, & Public Health

LL.M Seminar (cross-listed) | 2 credit hours

This course will cover the interface between the intellectual property rights, international trade and public health, focusing in particular on the WTO TRIPS Agreement and subsequent decisions, including on the Covid-19 vaccines waiver and its possible extension to diagnostics and therapeutics.  It will provide an introduction to the provisions of WTO agreements relevant to public health (other than TRIPS), and to the law and economics relating to IPRs and public health; it will cover the provisions of the TRIPS Agreement relevant to public health, and discuss the relevant disputes settled in the WTO. It will examine the background, content and implications of the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health and of the subsequent TRIPS amendment implementing compulsory licensing for exports.  It will also discuss the TRIPS-plus provisions in bilateral or regional free trade area agreements. The course would study relevant national/regional implementing legislation, for example on compulsory licenses, and discuss use of the WTO export compulsory license provisions. It will devote a session to Covid-19 and infectious disease pandemics.It will devote a session to Covid-19 and infectious disease pandemics. Finally, the course will also cover recent work on trade, intellectual property and public health in other intergovernmental organizations, in particular in the World Health Organization, including negotiations on the pandemic agreement.
In addition to the final paper, students will be graded on class participation, individual/group class presentations.
The learning objectives and outcomes of this course are to be able to:

  • Identify the legal and policy implications of international trade rules, particularly those on intellectual property rights (IPRs), for public health, and critically evaluate proposals for changes to these rules; 
  • Understand past and current legal work of international institutions in this field, particularly the WTO and the WHO, and evaluate the way forward; 
  • Improve the basic skill of communicating effectively, both in writing and orally, on a legal topic covered by the course, for example by explaining clearly how the provisions of TRIPS could be used to promote both the innovation of and access to needed medicines; 
  • Improve the skill of independently conducting legal and policy research; 
  • Demonstrate the basic value of being respectful of the different views in this area, including during group work and in class.

Recommended: Coursework in International Trade, Intellectual Property Rights, or Public Health.

LAW 880 v00 International White Collar Crime

LL.M Course | 2 credit hours

This course examines key issues arising from the criminalization of transnational business conduct and attempts to enforce national laws extraterritorially, as well as how to counsel clients to comply with inconsistent or conflicting legal regimes. Topics covered will include: bribery of foreign officials, crime on the internet, economic embargoes and export and reexport controls, securities fraud, money laundering, and price-fixing. Attention will be paid to foreign governmental opposition to U.S. assertions of jurisdiction via "blocking" statutes, secrecy laws, and use of local court injunctions, as well as to mechanisms for resolving jurisdictional conflicts, including international agreements for notification, consultation, mutual legal assistance, "positive comity," and exchanges of confidential information among enforcement authorities. The course will also focus extensively on compliance and ethics issues and on techniques for dealing with government law enforcement agencies.

Recommended: International Law I: Introduction to International Law (or the equivalent of International Law I, which is a 3 credit course in public international law).

Mutually Excluded Courses: Students may not receive credit for both this course and International Economic Crime and Corruption.

Note: Please note, the two sections of this course have different requirements. Please be sure to register for CRN 13649 if you wish to elect the section with a final exam and CRN 24229 if you wish to elect the section requiring a paper. 

LAW 292 v07 Law and Development

J.D. Course (cross-listed) | 3 credit hours

This three-credit survey course is designed to introduce students to the different dimensions of law and development, integrating legal, historical, academic, and practical models and approaches.  The course will cover a range of issues and substantive areas of law, including economic and social development and rule of law approaches; human rights law; comparative law; peace and security; international economic law (including trade, finance, aid, and investment);  labor, environmental, and health law; market regulation; institutional models for advancing law and development; gender; and sustainable development.  It will also examine the increasing role of technology and data in law and development and the connection between law and the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).  Throughout the semester, the course will explore how different areas of law address questions of equity, inclusiveness, vulnerability, and environmental sustainability.  There are no prerequisites for this course, and it is intended to be both an introduction to law and development and a complement to other course offerings at Georgetown Law.  

The course is divided into three parts.  The first part begins with an exploration of the foundations of law and development, including an examination of the issues, debates, and academic literature.  This portion of the course will examine the role of governments and institutions in law and development (including the World Bank, WTO, IMF, UN system, donor organizations, regional organizations, and others), as well as how rules are designed and implemented from the perspective of individual and community stakeholders.  Part I of the course will also highlight the evolution of different approaches, theories, and models within law and development, including economic approaches (structural change approaches, dependency theory, neoclassical/neoliberal approaches, endogenous growth theory, post-Washington consensus models, and others), promotion and criticism of rule of law approaches (legal pluralism, institutionalism and new institutional economics, constitutionalism, international vs. national law approaches, legal empowerment, informality, and others), and current movements such as law and political economy and TWAIL (Third World Approaches to International Law).   

The second part of the course will introduce students to the different substantive dimensions of law and development.  This segment will allow students to both understand the legal foundations of different aspects of law and development and explore intersections between different areas of law as they relate to development, highlighting the cross-cutting nature of law and development.  Topics will include human rights law, international economic law (finance, investment, and trade), conflict and resource control, gender and development, corruption and development, development assistance, and law and development aspects of health, environment, and climate change. 

The third part of the course will focus on issue-based and regional case studies, allowing students to apply what was covered in the first two parts of the course in different contexts and explore ways in which law has been – or could be – a driver for development.  Issue-focused case studies will include land tenure and contracts, labor, agriculture and food security, intellectual property rights, and data and development.  Regional case studies will include Africa, Asia (with some focus on China and India, among other countries), and Latin America.  In this part of the course, students will also assess which law and development approaches have been best suited to different circumstances, economies, cultures, and communities. 

Learning Objectives

The course has several interconnected learning objectives:

  • Understand the legal, historical, economic, and political context of different aspects of law and development, individually and in relation to each other;
  • Examine different normative approaches to law and development, globally and regionally;
  • Interpret academic research, relevant excerpts from international treaties, provisions in bilateral and regional agreements, and laws and regulations, building an understanding of the inter-connected nature of different legal instruments;
  • Assess law and development challenges facing governments and international institutions, identifying possible approaches and trade-offs;
  • Understand how economic, social, and sustainable development can be further incorporated into soft and hard law, as well as international, regional, and national law;
  • Introduce students to different roles for lawyers in the field of law and development; and
  • Equip students with the knowledge and tools to approach law as a tool for promoting social, economic, and sustainable development. 

LAW 434 v02 Mergers and Acquisitions

J.D. Course (cross-listed) | 3 credit hours

This course draws on legal principles and financial economics to understand mergers and acquisitions. The class will cover incentives for deals and constraints on them arising from both law and economic factors. Valuation and judicial review of defensive tactics, for example, are included in the topics to be studied. Individual and team assignments may be included as part of the class.

Prerequisite: Corporations.

Mutually Excluded Courses: Students may not receive credit for both this course and Takeovers, Mergers, and Acquisitions.

LAW 3092 v00 Modern Ethics and Compliance Concepts in Business

LL.M Seminar (cross-listed) | 1 credit hour

This course will cover the concepts and components that form the basis for an organization to implement a modern ethics and compliance program. This will use current examples on failures in organizations and discuss how an ethics and compliance program could have prevented or minimized the conduct.

By the end of the course, students should:

1) have a mastery of the basic elements of an effective compliance program (see U.S.S.G and OIG 7 elements) along with a basic understanding of how a risk-based assessment guides practitioners in building modern compliance programs; 2) have a basic knowledge of the relevant laws, regulations and guidances (including FCPA, UK Bribery Act, OECD Anti-bribery convention) that enforcement organizations, agencies and/or courts would apply to hold organizations/individuals accountable for ethics/compliance failings; 3) have a basic understanding of the tools used to help organizations implement an effective ethics and compliance program (from assessment frameworks, code of conduct, policies and procedures, to internal investigations, training approaches and hotlines, due diligence and screening tools); and 4) using real-world scenarios and case studies, gain a deeper understanding of the issues faced by modern organizations and how compliance programs are tailored to address current and emerging risks (such as data privacy concerns) and exhibit an ability to combine law, theory and tools to analyze how to mitigate ethical or compliance risk facing an organization.

Note: ATTENDANCE IS MANDATORY AT ALL CLASS SESSIONS. Enrolled students must be in attendance at the start of the first class session in order to remain enrolled. Waitlisted students must be in attendance at the start of the first class session in order to remain eligible to be admitted off the waitlist. All enrolled students must attend each class session in its entirety. Failure to attend the first class session in its entirety will result in a drop; failure to attend any subsequent class session in its entirety may result in a withdrawal.

Enrolled students will have until the beginning of the second class session to request a drop by contacting the Office of the Registrar; a student who no longer wishes to remain enrolled after the second class session begins will not be permitted to drop the class but may request a withdrawal from an academic advisor in the Office of Academic Affairs. Withdrawals are permitted up until the last class for this specific course.

LAW 967 v00 National Security Law & the Private Sector

LL.M Course (cross-listed) | 1 credit hour

This seminar will examine how the U.S. government regulates and addresses national security in a global economy in which data and money flows freely and sensitive assets in the United States and abroad are owned or controlled by commercial actors. The concept of “national security” in U.S. legal doctrine and regimes is hardly new, but the impact of national security law on the private sector has expanded dynamically since September 11, 2001. The course will review the history and breadth of national security law and public policy as it relates to the private sector and the principles for the application of national security regulation to private actors.  While the seminar will address these considerations for a variety of practice areas, the primary focus of the seminar will be on how these principles apply in national security reviews of foreign investment conducted by the federal inter-agency Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States, or CFIUS. The course will use functional examples (i.e., real world cases) to explore fundamental policy questions -- e.g., what is the proper balance between security and openness in a commercial world -- as well as to evaluate the legal and practical considerations of private actors (including fiduciary duties to shareholders and reputation risk, among others) and their counsel when confronted with national security issues.  

This seminar is designed for those who are interested in how concepts of national security in the law affect private actors -- primarily, but not exclusively, businesses -- on a daily basis. There will be elements of history, but the main focus will be experiential.  Accordingly, while the course will not be a heavy reading course, preparation will be important and students may be designated (with significant advance notice) to help lead a particular class discussion. Outside experts from the Executive Branch, Congress, and the private sector may be invited to participate in certain classes.

Course pre-requisites: None

Requirements -- Three requirements:

(a) The preparation of materials to help lead a particular class discussion.

(b) Participation in class discussion centered around real world fact patterns.

(c) A take-home final exam.

Note: ATTENDANCE IS MANDATORY AT ALL CLASS SESSIONS. Enrolled students must be in attendance at the start of the first class session in order to remain enrolled. Waitlisted students must be in attendance at the start of the first class session in order to remain eligible to be admitted off the waitlist. All enrolled students must attend each class session in its entirety. Failure to attend the first class session in its entirety will result in a drop; failure to attend any subsequent class session in its entirety may result in a withdrawal.

Enrolled students will have until the beginning of the second class session to request a drop by contacting the Office of the Registrar; a student who no longer wishes to remain enrolled after the second class session begins will not be permitted to drop the class but may request a withdrawal from an academic advisor in the Office of Academic Affairs. Withdrawals are permitted up until the last class for this specific course.

The take-home exam in this course may be administered mid-semester and the specific exam date will be provided by the professor after the add/drop period.

LAW 1803 v00 Practitioner’s Perspective on Banking Structure and Regulation

J.D. Course (cross-listed) | 2 credit hours

A real world, practitioner’s perspective is critical to understanding the complexities of practice as a banking lawyer.  The law governing the regulation and supervision of banks and their affiliates is constantly developing and is one of the most intricate and interesting areas of U.S. law.  This two-hour lecture and discussion course is designed to provide students with the tools to develop a career in banking law and will explore a broad range of topics of interest to lawyers practicing banking law. 

Key topics include an introduction to the U.S. regulatory agencies involved in the supervision and regulation of banks, the powers and activities of banks and their affiliates, the important role of Federal deposit insurance, and the special procedures for resolving a failed bank.  In addition, the course will cover the special manner in which anti-trust laws apply to mergers and acquisitions involving banks and their affiliates, and review the process for chartering new financial institutions, such as fintechs and minority-owned depository institutions.  

The course will emphasize the unique regulatory framework applied to banks and the importance of racial equity in our financial system, including a focus on the Community Reinvestment Act and the policy response to address historic inequities in financial services.  The course will also explore a variety of hot topics in banking, such as digital currency, the rise of fintech companies, and the growing importance of environmental, social, and governance and other cutting-edge issues.

Recommended: Administrative Law; Corporations.

Note: This course will have a mid-term take-home exam. 

LAW 3067 v00 Public-Private Partnerships: Law and Governance

LL.M Course (cross-listed) | 1 credit hour

Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) are a modern means for pursuing social and policy outcomes and have recently served as a key vehicle for addressing the COVID-19 pandemic. When they work, they mobilize the comparative advantages of the public and private spheres to address key challenges. When they fail, critics cite their worst aspects and argue for a retreat into more traditional roles. Their prevalence means that everyone is likely to come across, and be affected by, such a partnership at some point in their careers.

Serving as a lawyer to a PPP provides an exceptional challenge because the tools and strategies that work when counseling in the public sector may be strange or ill fit for purpose in the private sector (and vice versa). Effective PPP lawyers are translators and guides: they ‘speak both languages’ thus positioning themselves to propose innovative, non-obvious solutions and can build trust with, and among, partners and stakeholders. Bridging theory and practice, students will have the opportunity to understand why PPPs have emerged and the theoretical basis under which they operate. They will also receive practical tools and knowledge to allow them to work with or within a PPP and discuss and debate sophisticatedly how they should be managed and governed.

To do this, the course uses a mix of lecture, discussion, video, and experiential learning. A key feature is a simulation that provides students the opportunity to experience the formation of a PPP using the tools they develop during the semester.

LAW 3147 v00 Sustainability for Big Law and Big Business

LL.M Seminar (cross-listed) | 2 credit hours

Sustainability issues such as climate change, human rights and racial justice have become the defining challenges of business. International corporations must navigate a complex web of regulatory and policy challenges to assure their long-term viability. In response to statutory, investor and customer pressures, Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) factors are fundamental to how Boards and Senior Executives are valuing strategic opportunities and their overall risk profile. Lawyers will play an increasingly critical role in advising on trends related to: (i) the greater integration of sustainability within policy and legislation; (ii) the appetite of investors for ESG considerations within their investment portfolios; (iii) the demand for greater transparency and uniform disclosure; (iv) the growth of green and social impact investment products; and (v) the heightened calls for racial equity and social justice. This course will provide a general overview of the statutory and regulatory frameworks required to advise businesses on these ESG challenges and explore how evolving interpretations of “fiduciary duty” and “corporate purpose” may help or hinder the ability of business to make a meaningful impact on climate change and other social issues.

Learning Objectives:

At the conclusion of the class, students should be able to:

  • Identify the key legal ESG issues involved in corporate transactions (investments, acquisitions and due diligence);
  • Understand how risks can be mitigated related to climate change litigation and other ESG claims; and
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of policy initiatives designed to increase the social impact of business.

Mutually Excluded Courses: Students may not receive credit for this course and Corporate Purpose and Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) Issues Seminar.

LAW 2097 v00 Takeovers, Mergers, and Acquisitions

LL.M Course (cross-listed) | 2 credit hours

This course provides a broad overview of mergers and acquisitions. This course will provide a framework for students to understand the merger and acquisition environment, to analyze M&A transactions, to develop opinions about them, to design M&A transactions, including friendly deals, hostiles, leveraged buyouts, mergers of equals, and cross border situations and covers topics such as the structures commonly used in M&A transactions, securities laws affecting M&A transactions, strategies employed by the acquiring company and the target firm in negotiating an acquisition, the roles and responsibilities of stakeholders in responding to an acquisition proposal, takeover defenses employed by target companies, the structure of an acquisition agreement, and the techniques for effective drafting of transaction documents.

Prerequisite: Prerequisites: Corporations or equivalent

Mutually Excluded Courses: Students may not receive credit for both this course and the J.D. course, Mergers and Acquisitions, or the LL.M. course, Takeovers, Mergers, and Acquisitions.

LAW 1654 v00 The IMF and the Evolution of International Financial and Monetary Law

J.D. Course (cross-listed) | 3 credit hours

The IMF is an institution that is well known, but perhaps less well understood. The course will analyze the IMF’s legal and institutional framework and assess the role that it has played in shaping the evolution of international financial and monetary law since its establishment over 70 years ago.  The course will be interdisciplinary in nature, focusing on the legal, financial, economic, and governance aspects of this influential – and often controversial – institution.

The IMF is unique among international organizations in terms of the breadth of its powers: regulatory, financial and advisory. With respect to its regulatory authority, the course will analyze the IMF’s role in overseeing the fixed exchange rate system that was established in 1945 and assess how the IMF’s jurisdiction in this area has evolved since the collapse of that system in 1971. Regarding its financial powers, the Course will review the legal and policy dimensions of IMF conditionality and assess the IMF’s often controversial role as a “financial fire fighter”, drawing lessons from the role it played in a number of financial crises, including the Latin American Debt Crisis, the Asian Financial Crisis and the Great Financial Crisis of 2008. With respect to its advisory powers, the course will analyze how the IMF has developed “soft law” in its assessment of the adequacy of policies in a broad range of areas, including bank regulation, fiscal transparency and corporate insolvency. Finally, the Course will review the IMF’s governance structure and, in that context, analyze the challenges it faces to its own legitimacy as it seeks to adjust its voting system to take into account important shifts in relative economic power among its member countries. The release of internal staff papers and Executive Board minutes under the IMF’s transparency policy will enable students to gain a unique understanding of the complexity of the decision-making process within this institution.  

Learning Outcomes

By the end of the course, students will have gained an in-depth understanding of the IMF’s regulatory and financial powers, as well as its governance structure. They will also have gained insight into the role the IMF has played in shaping international monetary and financial law in an environment where there has been an increasing unwillingness of countries to surrender sovereignty in this area through substantive treaty obligations. In this context, they will learn about the role that alternative legal frameworks have been played in this area, including procedural law, soft law and private law.  A key objective will be for the students to gain an understanding of how the views regarding the nature of the IMF’s legal authority can be seen as a microcosm of evolving attitudes towards the pooling of national sovereignty. The students’ knowledge of these issues will be enhanced by a close study of internal IMF staff papers, which will enable them to obtain a unique understanding of how legal, financial and economic issues are integrated during the IMF-decision making process. Moreover, through an in-depth analysis of a number of systemic financial crisis, students will gain an appreciation of the competing considerations - and constraints - faced by policy makers in a crisis context. This appreciation will be enhanced by occasional presentations provided by present and former IMF officials who played a lead role during the crises that will be studied.

LAW 3134 v00 The Intersection of Employment and National Security Law

LL.M Course (cross-listed) | 1 credit hour

Federal employees and contractors safeguard our nation’s most sensitive information and secrets. However, many do not consider that national security is a major consideration when employing civil servants or making decisions regarding their continued employment.  As of 2017, over 4.3 million Americans possess a security clearance and even more have access to sensitive, unclassified information. Security clearances and suitability reviews assess the reliability, trustworthiness, and character of prospective employees. 

Because security clearance and suitability adjudications often determine whether a person is hired - and in some cases, fired - they invoke the application of employment protections under laws such as Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967, and the Americans with Disabilities Act Amendments Act of 2008. The decision to deny employment based on a security clearance or suitability decision is considered an adverse action. While some actions are subject to judicial and/or administrative court review, others are not.  Therefore, executive orders, federal regulations, and agency guidance are necessary to ensure that vetting is both thorough and fair. In the last decade, courts and agencies have grappled with issues ranging from discrimination to the stigmatization of mental health issues in security clearance and suitability adjudications.

This course will examine the intersectionality of national security issues and employment; specifically, how national security concerns shape vetting in federal employment from security clearances to suitability reviews. Moreover, it will serve as an introduction to understanding the interplay of federal case law, executive orders, federal regulations, and agency guidance in this area.

LAW 1218 v00 Trade, Money, and Trust: The Law and Policy of Globalization Seminar

J.D. Seminar (cross-listed) | 3 credit hours

Successful management of globalization has emerged as the central challenge of our time. Globalization has been blamed for many of our social and economic problems from inequality to stagnant growth. The international regulatory failures exposed by the financial crisis of 2008-2009 have called into question not only the regulatory framework for financial stability, but also the entire framework of international norms and institutions known as Bretton Woods that have been the pillars of global economic regulation. The accompanying collapse in public trust in government experts and private elites has complicated efforts to address these challenges. Populist candidates have swept elections, particularly in the US and UK, based on platforms to reverse the course of international integration. Meanwhile, China and Russia have doubled down on leaders that embrace a return to state controlled economies and traditional notions of regional hegemony. Are we at an historical turning point characterized by GLEXIT – the abandonment of globalization – or will these challenges lead to a Globalization 2.0?

The purpose of this seminar is to look at the role of international economic law in managing globalization, both in terms of extracting the benefits and in addressing the consequences, particularly those negative effects that have fed the backlash. The focus of the seminar will be on the central regulatory regimes governing international economic activity: trade, monetary, investment, finance, competition, tax, sovereign debt and corruption. We will examine the fundamental character and role of legal norms, regulatory systems and international institutions in a world characterized by interdependence and conflict.

This is a research seminar in which the initial eight weekly classes will present a survey of regulatory regimes designed to give students a framework for what have historically been somewhat distinct “silos” but which each illustrate the recurring tensions between fragmentation and coherence. We invite student involvement in the specific topics in the field on which we focus. Each student will be asked to provide short papers responding to the readings for each of the initial sessions. Students will be expected to write a research paper on a relevant topic under the guidance of one of the professors and to make a short presentation to the class during the last third of the course. In their research paper, students will be expected to identify a contemporary, global economic regulatory issue and propose solutions drawing on insights from the seminar (and their broader studies) to analyze the problem, propose and defend possible solutions.

The seminar will be taught by professors with a wide range of experience in academia, private practice and government service. Distinguished outside experts will also be called upon to address particular topics within this framework. 

A number of broad themes will be developed to help unravel the complexity of global regulation:

  • What is the role of legal norms in creating efficient and sustainable global markets? Do some problems lend themselves to different types of norms (e.g. soft versus hard law)? What about governance, the formality of legal norms (and institutions) and the role of national sovereignty and subsidiarity?
  • Why do the different global economic regulatory regimes look so different? Why has trade evolved with an advanced set of norms, dispute settlement and enforcement?
  • How have crises and systemic failures contributed to the development of legal regimes? Do crises lead to sustainable and effective regulatory regimes?
  • What role does trust play in the character of legal regimes? Can international economic law be viewed as the objectification of trust? How can trust be sustained when global issues engage citizenry across the most diverse context imaginable?

Recommended: Students may want to familiarize themselves with basic principles of international economic law and areas of international regulation such as international trade, investment and financial regulation. The seminar will include both JD and LLM students and we encourage students with a range of exposure to the underlying subject matter. For insight into the kinds of issues the seminar will address, students are encouraged to review the material in Cottier, Jackson and Lastra, International Law in Financial Regulation and Monetary Affairs, Oxford University Press (2012). Students may also find useful the PBS Documentary, The Ascent of Money; A Financial History of the World, written and presented by Niall Ferguson which is available online at http://www.pbs.org/show/ascent-of-money/.

LAW 962 v00 U.S. Export Controls and Economic Sanctions

LL.M Course | 2 credit hours

Understanding and dealing with U.S. export control and sanction laws have become increasingly important skills for lawyers advising clients who compete in the global economy, including manufacturers, service enterprises, financial institutions, and companies licensing their technology abroad.  This course surveys the federal laws and implementing regulations governing the export and re-export of goods, services, technology and software from the United States or by persons subject to U.S. jurisdiction, the extraterritorial reach of re-export controls, prosecution strategies, restrictions on dealings with or in sanctioned countries, prohibitions against dealing with blacklisted parties, and other sanctions that apply to non-U.S. companies and individuals.
The course is designed to impart the practical skill sets and strategies you will need to use and understand the complex regulatory regimes underpinning U.S. export controls and sanctions, and to communicate effectively with the relevant government actors.  The applicable laws include statutes such as the International Emergency Economic Powers Act, Trading with the Enemy Act, the Export Control Reform Act, and regulations issued by federal agencies such as the U.S. Departments of Commerce and Treasury. Our study of these rules will include review of case law, agency guidance and prior government enforcement actions.
The course will also focus on the enforcement environment, including the trend of ever-increasing fines.  We will discuss defense strategies and the potential for global settlements with the Departments of Justice, Treasury, and Commerce.
Finally, the course will emphasize developing the working knowledge necessary for hands-on practice and problem-solving in this field.

 

Recommended:  Administrative Law; International Law I: Introduction to International Law.

 

LAW 962 v03 U.S. Export Controls and Economic Sanctions

LL.M Course (cross-listed) | 2 credit hours

Understanding and dealing with U.S. export control and sanction laws and regulations have become increasingly important skills for lawyers advising clients who compete in the global economy, including manufacturers, service enterprises, financial institutions, and companies licensing their technology abroad. This course provides an in-depth survey of the federal laws and implementing regulations governing the export and re-export of goods, services, technology and software from the United States or by persons subject to U.S. jurisdiction, the extraterritorial reach of re-export controls, restrictions on dealings with or in sanctioned countries, prohibitions against dealing with blacklisted parties, and other sanctions. 

The course is designed to impart the hands-on, practical skill sets needed by those who wish to practice in the increasingly in-demand area of export controls and sanctions compliance, including the skills needed to use and understand the various complex laws and regulations systems that implement U.S. export controls and sanctions, such as the International Emergency Economic Powers Act, the Trading with the Enemy Act, the Arms Export Control Act, and the Export Control Reform Act, as well as regulations issued by various federal agencies, including the U.S. Departments of Commerce, Treasury, and State. 

This course also will provide the skill sets necessary to communicate effectively with licensing agencies, how to approach foundational determinations of agency jurisdiction and classification, and how these issues affect direct investment in the United States as regulated by the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States.

The course also will focus on the civil and criminal enforcement environment, including the trends of ever-increasing fines and global settlements with the Departments of Justice, State, Treasury, and Commerce. 

 

Recommended: Administrative Law; International Law I.

Note: This course is recommended for those students who have a strong desire to practice in the area of export controls and sanctions compliance, whether with law firms, government agencies, or companies.  Although national security and foreign policy considerations will be touched on in the context of understanding, interpreting, and using the laws and regulations that will be the focus of this course, these policy considerations will not be a primary focus of the course. 

LAW 872 v00 World Trade Organization: Agreements, Negotiations & Disputes

LL.M Course (cross-listed) | 2 credit hours

The course analyzes the World Trade Organization (WTO) and its agreements, including the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), and the substance and status of negotiations to amend the agreements. It concentrates on the coverage of the agreements, based on their text and interpretive guidance from key dispute settlement decisions. The course also reviews the relevant economic, policy and legal aspects of the international trading system.