Certificate in WTO & International Trade Studies

LAW 370 v02 Business and Human Rights in the Global Economy

J.D. Seminar (cross-listed) | 2 credit hours

Corporations today have a global scale as well as an impact that matches or sometimes exceeds that of governments. Their activities -- from sourcing of raw materials, to processing and production of intermediate or finished goods, to distribution and sale -- have major consequences not only for the human rights of their employees but also for the rights of the individuals and communities impacted by their operations. In many countries, government regulation and oversight are either absent or largely ineffective. Companies in turn struggle to define their responsibilities in the face of these "governance gaps" -- particularly where requirements under national law fall short of international standards in areas such as hours of work and safety and healthy.

A robust and often contentious debate over these issues culminated in the development of the U.N. Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (the “UNGPs”) under the leadership of Special Representative John Ruggie. These Principles establish a framework for considering the respective roles of governments and corporations and outline core concepts of human rights due diligence and effective remedy. In doing so, the UNGPs also inform and to some extent refocus efforts that have emerged over the past 20 years to address these governance gaps and have brought together stakeholders from business, labor, civil society, the investment community, and academia.

At the same time, in recent years there has been an increased push from civil society groups and certain governments to go beyond these "voluntary" efforts and develop a binding business and human rights treaty mechanism; this has met with strong opposition from business and many other governments, including the United States.

Even as "non-regulatory" approaches remain the predominant means of addressing various business and human rights challenges, there also has been a growing focus in recent years on tools through which national governments and international institutions could exercise greater leverage. This includes advocacy for stronger labor and other human rights language in trade agreements, one-way trade preference programs, procurement standards, and the rules and guidelines applied by international financial institutions -- coupled with more aggressive enforcement of those criteria. Expanded efforts to advance that "regulatory" approach in trade policy and elsewhere in some cases has been met with resistance from governments and business, but there also have been examples of emerging consensus among a diverse range of stakeholders.

This course introduces students to this quickly-evolving business and human rights landscape, including the diverse set of multi-stakeholder initiatives -- some, but not all, of which include government participation. We will discuss the guidance provided by the UNGPs and other instruments, the range of stakeholders and how they engage with one another, tools utilized by governments and corporations to implement human rights standards, and how all of these interact in the context of both sector-specific and cross-cutting legal and policy challenges.

Among the questions the course will examine are:

  • Which human rights standards are most relevant to business?
  • What are the appropriate linkages between business policies and practices and the promotion of human rights?
  • Which business and human rights approaches are emerging as “best practices" and perhaps even as recognized norms?
  • What tools to support those are being used by governments and corporations?
  • Who are the principal stakeholders and what are their roles and objectives?
  • What are the strategies for addressing business and human rights "governance gaps" at the national and international levels?
  • What are the opportunities for increased integration of labor/human rights and trade policies, and what are the limitations?
  • What mix of mandatory/regulatory and voluntary/“self-regulatory” approaches has been utilized in different situations to advance human rights objectives? Which approaches have been most effective?
  • How are various business and human rights challenges playing out in specific sectors, and how do these inform the debate about different approaches?

To address these and other key questions, the course will begin with several sessions setting out the relevant legal and policy developments, with special attention to the UNGPs. It will also include a review of different stakeholders and their roles and interests, and examination of concepts of corporate responsibility and corporate accountability, and an analysis of the various approaches to business and human rights advanced by companies, governments, labor, civil society, and through multi-stakeholder initiatives. The second half of the semester will then focus on how these concepts are being applied in particular sectors to address specific business and human rights challenges.

Throughout the course, students will be asked to examine the various approaches and differing roles of key stakeholders, including by playing the roles of those addressing the key issues from the perspectives of corporations, civil society and unions, and governments. The class will be divided into three groups for purposes of this “role playing” -- with each asked to adopt all three perspectives during the course of the semester, both in students’ individual analyses of assigned readings and in group sessions during certain classes.

Learning Objectives:

Introduction to business and human rights landscape, including legal and policy developments, particularly the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights. The course reviews different stakeholders and roles, examines concepts of corporate responsibility and accountability, and analyzes various approaches to business and human rights advanced by stakeholders. The course will also familiarize students with sector specific business and human rights challenges.

Recommended: There are no formal course requirements, but some basic familiarity with international trade and human rights law is assumed.

Mutually Excluded Courses: Students may not receive credit for both this seminar and the practicum course Business and Human Rights.

LAW 014 v01 Current Issues in Transnational (Private International) Law Seminar

J.D. Seminar (cross-listed) | 2-3 credit hours

This seminar provides an introduction to the increasingly important field of private international law as well as an opportunity to explore in depth specific issues now under active consideration in the various international and regional organizations working on the development, codification and harmonization of private international law. Beyond the “classic” PIL questions of jurisdiction, choice of law, judicial assistance and enforcement of judgments, we will explore such topics as international family law (including international adoption, abduction and enforcement of child support and family maintenance), alternative dispute settlement mechanisms (including international mediation and commercial and investment arbitration), as well as the cross-border aspects of such topics as data protection and privacy, bankruptcy/insolvency, secured transactions, securities law, intellectual property, transport of goods by sea, letters of credit, leasing law, consumer protection, and even wills and trusts. You may write your papers in any of these areas (among others).  All students will be expected to choose a topic to research, write and present to the class.

This course requires a paper and an oral presentation. It is open to J.D. and LL.M. students. For J.D. students who choose the 3 credit “writing seminar” option, the objective will be to research and write analytical papers of publishable quality on discrete topics of current importance in transnational practice. Students will be required to satisfy the WR requirement including (1) selection of a paper topic approved by the professor, (2) submission of an outline, followed by feedback from the professor, (3) submission of a draft paper of at least 6,000 words exclusive of footnotes, followed by feedback from the professor, and (4) submission of a final paper of at least 6,000 words exclusive of footnotes, incorporating the professor’s suggested revisions. The paper must use legal forms of citation, where appropriate.

Learning goals for this course:

Familiarity with substance of "Private International Law", where it is developed and how; understanding of the relationship between international and domestic law; ability to research effectively in the field; ability to write coherently and present conclusions orally. 

Recommended: International Law I.

Note: This course requires a paper. Students must register for the 3 credit section of the course if they wish to write a paper fulfilling the Upperclass Legal Writing Requirement. The paper requirements of the 2 credit section will not fulfill the Upperclass Legal Writing Requirement.

LAW 3082 v00 Dispute Settlement in International Trade: A Comparative Examination of WTO, Regional & Bilateral Systems

LL.M Course (cross-listed) | 2 credit hours

This course involves an in-depth look, in a seminar-type setting, at different state-to-state dispute settlement systems in the international trade area.  Although the principal focus will be WTO dispute settlement, the course will also examine the new or re-invigorated mechanisms in regional agreements (e.g., RCEP, CPTPP) and bilateral trade and investment agreements of the United States (USMCA, CAFTA) and the EU (Korea FTA, CAI with China). In addition to examining the treaty provisions themselves, the course will involve the close reading of arbitral decisions, as a medium to examine real-world systemic issues regarding dispute settlement, such as the function of terms of reference, approaches to treaty interpretation, confidentiality, coherence between different bodies of international law, the role of precedent, standard of review, the scope of appellate review, implementation and compliance, and remedies. At the same time, students will gain familiarity with some of the leading substantive issues in international trade law. 

Recommended: Background in international trade law and in public international law generally.

Strongly Recommended: A introductory course in international trade law is strongly recommended.

Note: This course will have a final exam and short paper.

LAW 565 v00 Globalization, Work, and Inequality Seminar

J.D. Seminar (cross-listed) | 2-3 credit hours

A backlash against globalization has emerged in advanced economies as a result of job loss, wage stagnation, precarious work and economic insecurity for the middle class. The liberal globalization of the last three decades is under attack for the unequal distribution of its gains and its failure to provide better opportunities for ordinary working people. Reimagining the global economy will require placing work front and center. This seminar will explore the changing nature of the workplace due to global competition and technological change. It will examine important policy debates about how best to create jobs, improve working conditions, and promote economic growth and well-being. We will analyze how a variety of factors, such as new modes of production and technologies, increasing participation of women in the economy, widespread migration flows, increasing global trade and capital mobility, and the rise of informal economies challenge the assumptions underlying traditional labor and employment regulation in both developed and developing countries. We will consider an array of innovative attempts – national, international, transnational, public, private and mixed -- to improve workplace conditions and assure employment opportunity consistent with economic growth and stability. We will also inquire about the moral and political commitments associated with various approaches.
There are no prerequisites. All students are welcome.

Note: This seminar requires a paper. J.D. students must register for the 3-credit section of the seminar if they wish to write a paper fulfilling the J.D. Upperclass Legal Writing Requirement. The paper requirements of the 2-credit section will not fulfill the J.D. Upperclass Legal Writing Requirement.

LAW 226 v00 Intellectual Property in World Trade

J.D. Course (cross-listed) | 3 credit hours

The knowledge, technological inventions, creative works and accumulated experience and expertise of the professional workforce increasingly drives the global economy. Unlike physical capital, this intellectual capital cannot readily be confined to the territorial setting of its origin. The development of cohesive norms to protect intellectual properties on a global basis has thus proven to be an enormous challenge. This course considers this effort by addressing the core international agreements governing intellectual property; norms and norm-making in the international intellectual property rights system; dispute settlement and the enforcement of rights; and tensions arising between intellectual property rights and distinct legal and cultural values.

Mutually Excluded Courses: Students may not receive credit for this course and International Intellectual Property and Development and the graduate course, International Protection of Intellectual Property Through the WTO.

LAW 240 v01 International Business Negotiations

J.D. Seminar | 3 credit hours

This course is structured around a semester-long, simulated negotiation exercise in which the students in this class will represent a US pharmaceutical company (KJH Pharmaceutical Corporation) and the students in a similar class, at the University of Dundee in Scotland, will represent an African agricultural production company (Malundian Cassava Corporation). The two companies are interested in working together to exploit a new technology developed by KJH Pharmaceutical that uses the cassava produced by Malundian Cassava Corporation. The form of their collaboration could be a joint venture, a licensing agreement or a long term supply contract. The negotiations will take place through written exchanges and through live negotiation via videoconference. Substantive law issues related to the transaction, as well as negotiations strategy and related issues, will be addressed in this class.

The purpose of the course is to provide students with an opportunity (i) to gain an introduction to transactional law and experience the sequential development of a business transaction over an extended negotiation, (ii) to study the business and legal issues and strategies that impact the negotiation, (iii) to gain insight into the dynamics of negotiating and structuring international business transactions, (iv) to learn about the role that lawyers and law play in these negotiations, (v) to give students experience in drafting communications, and (vi) to provide negotiating experience in a context that replicates actual legal practice with an unfamiliar opposing party (here, the students at Dundee).

The thrust of this course is class participation and active involvement in the negotiations process. Students are expected to spend time outside of class, working in teams, to prepare for class discussions involving the written exchanges as well as preparing for the live negotiations. Class discussions will focus on the strategy for, and progress of, the negotiations, as well as the substantive legal, business and policy matters that impact on the negotiations. Grades will be based on participation in the exercises, students’ diaries, and a final paper.

Recommended: Prior or concurrent enrollment in Corporations.

Mutually Excluded Courses: Students may receive credit for this course and the graduate course International Negotiations Seminar (LAWJ/G-958). Students may NOT receive credit for this course and the J.D. course International Negotiations Seminar (LAWJ/G-240) or the graduate course International Negotiations (LAWJ/G-3029).

Note: This seminar is open to J.D. students only.

Students may not withdraw from this class after the add/drop period ends without the permission of the professor.

Due to the coordination with the class in Dundee, Scotland, this class does not cancel even if Georgetown Law is closed. In the event of a weather closing, this class will be held via Zoom.

LAW 240 v02 International Business Negotiations

J.D. Seminar | 3 credit hours

This simulation course is structured around a semester-long negotiation exercise in which the students on one team of lawyers will be negotiating with students on another team of lawyers. One team will represent an African agricultural production company (Malundian Cassava Corporation) and the other team will represent a multi-national pharmaceutical company (KJH Pharmaceutical Corporation). In the simulation, the two companies are interested in working together to exploit a new technology developed by KJH Pharmaceutical that requires use of a plant crop (cassava) produced in Malundi and sold by Malundian Cassava Corporation. The form of their business collaboration could be a joint venture, a licensing agreement, or a long-term supply agreement. The negotiations will take place through written exchanges and through face-to-face negotiation sessions. Substantive legal topics related to the transactions, as well as to the process of international negotiation and related issues, will be covered  in this course.

The goals of this course are (i) to introduce students to transactional law and practice, (ii) to provide negotiations training and experience in the context of international transactional practice, and (iii) to develop legal-practice skills. Students will apply their legal and non-legal knowledge in the role of lawyers negotiating an international business transaction, within the controlled environment of the classroom.

This experiential course is built around active involvement in the transactional negotiations process. Students may expect to spend some time outside of the class meetings working in teams to prepare the written exchanges and prepare for the negotiations. Class meetings will focus on the strategy for and the process of the negotiations as well as on many of the substantive legal, business and policy issues that arise in the course of business negotiations. Grades will be based on 1) written self-evaluation “journal” entries and 2) a final paper (see “Course Requirements” below).

Recommended: Prior or concurrent enrollment in Corporations and Contracts.

Mutually Excluded Courses: Students may receive credit for this course and the graduate course International Negotiations Seminar (LAWJ/G-958). Students may NOT receive credit for this course and the J.D. course International Negotiations Seminar (LAWJ/G-240) or the graduate course International Negotiations (LAWJ/G-3029).

Note: This course is open to J.D. students only.

In addition to the 2-hour Monday classes, this class has five Saturday sessions (see times below). These sessions are devoted to the live negotiations. Due to the Saturday sessions, the Monday sessions will end earlier in the semester.

NOTE: In the event of a weather closing, this class may be held via conference call dial-in.

LAW 876 v04 International Business Transactions

LL.M Course (cross-listed) | 3 credit hours

This three credit course is an introductory survey of legal issues that arise in connection with international business transactions.  Subjects covered include:  (1) laws and treaties involved in cross-border business transactions; (2) core international business transactions, including international sales and letters of credit, non-establishment (agency, distribution, contract manufacturing, franchising, licensing) and establishment (branch, subsidiary, joint venture) forms of doing business, equity and debt/project finance transactions, and mergers and acquisitions; (3) fundamental legal concepts such as choice of law, choice of forum, jurisdiction, investment protection (expropriation), anti-corruption and competition regulation, and dispute resolution, focusing on litigation and arbitration, (4) the transfer and protection of intellectual property, and (5) corporate social responsibility.

The learning outcomes for this International Business Transactions course include: (1) basic knowledge and understanding of (a) substantive and procedural laws concerning international business transactions, and (b) the role of private and public international law in the conduct of international business; and (2) international legal analysis and reasoning, problem solving, professional skills, and written and oral communication in the context of international business transactions.

Recommended: International Law I: Introduction to International Law; a course in Finance or Securities Regulation.

Mutually Excluded Courses: Students may not receive credit for both this course and International Business Transactions and International Dispute Resolution or the J.D. course, International Business Transactions.

LAW 1380 v00 International Economic Law & Policy Colloquium

J.D. Seminar (cross-listed) | 2 credit hours

The International Economic Law & Policy Colloquium offers students a new and rigorous research platform for understanding the theory of international economic law and participating in policy analysis. Students will participate alongside graduate students, fellows and visiting scholars at the Institute of International Economic Law with outside speakers and help create, and potentially author, research and policy-oriented products for the Institute of International Economic Law.

Students will be expected to 1) work within a group to prepare weekly responses to weekly presenters hailing from the academy, government and the public policy community and 2) provide a 5-10 page end of the semester brief on a specific policy issue concerning a relevant matter of international economic law. The best issue briefs will be included for publication by IIEL and distributed to policymakers in Washington D.C. and abroad. Topics can include any area of international economic law, including international trade, financial regulation and enforcement, monetary affairs and tax.

Recommended: Ideally students will have taken an advanced course in either a) International Trade and Arbitration b) business law (e.g., Securities Regulation, Bankruptcy, International Business Transactions, or International Finance) or c) International Tax.

LAW 1260 v00 International Economic Law Practicum (Project-Based Practicum)

J.D. Practicum | 4 credit hours

In this project-based practicum course focused on international economic law, primarily international trade and investment law, students will participate in a seminar and will work throughout the semester on a project done on behalf of a developing country government, an international organization, an NGO or an SME under the supervision of their professor(s) and in conjunction with expert mentors. Students will participate in a weekly seminar with two-hour sessions (during some weeks, primarily at the start of the semester and around the middle and end of the term, the seminar meets two or three times, other weeks, the seminar does not meet and only team meetings take place) and carry out 10 hours/week of project work under the direction of the course professors.

SEMINAR: This practicum offers a unique opportunity to thoroughly analyze international trade and investment law, as well as broader issues of international economic law, and jurisprudence through a combination of practice and theory. The practicum has three goals. First, to enhance students’ substantive legal knowledge of international economic law, not only through traditional in-class teaching but also through hands-on work on a specific legal project of high practical importance for their “beneficiary.” Second, the practicum aims to improve students’ professional skills to become successful lawyers, including the ability to analyze complex legal problems, to apply the law to a set of facts, to interact with beneficiaries, to work in groups with other lawyers across cultures and language barriers, to convincingly make oral presentations, to write legal memos or submissions, and to adapt the explanation of legal expertise to a diverse audience. Third, the practicum aims to stimulate personal skills and aspirations of students and to make them aware of professional opportunities in the international law field and discover new challenges. Through interactions with students from diverse background and a diversity of “beneficiaries”, often from other countries and legal systems, participants will build inter-personal skills, learn about other legal, economic, and social systems, and experience the challenges and needs of a wide variety of stakeholders affected by international economic law, extending well beyond traditional issues and stakeholders.

PROJECT WORK: Students will work in small groups (“project teams”) and under the close supervision of one or more Professors ("Supervising Professors"), invited experts (“Mentors”) and the Teaching Assistant (TA) on specific legal questions related to international economic law (IEL) coming from “real clients” (“beneficiaries”) such as international organizations, governments, SMEs or NGOs. In addition, introductory sessions by Mentors will be held to provide substantive background to the respective topics, as well as sessions to improve research and legal writing skills. At the end of the semester, the groups will submit written legal memos or other work products and orally present their projects in class in the presence of the beneficiary and other invited guests. To get an idea of the types of projects done in previous years, see www.tradelab.org.

The practicum is part of the broader TradeLab network and operates in collaboration with TradeLab (www.tradelab.org) to enable beneficiaries to submit projects, to facilitate the operation of the teams and to promote the completed work to the public. TradeLab is an online platform that allows countries, NGOs and other smaller stakeholders easy and smart access to legal talents in the field of trade and investment law, allowing these actors to reap the full development benefits of global trade and investment rules by making WTO, preferential trade and bilateral investment treaties work for everyone.

Prerequisite:

Students must complete a basic trade/WTO or investment law course before applying. J.D. students must complete the required first-year program prior to enrolling (part-time and interdivisional transfer students may enroll prior to completing Criminal Justice, Property, or their first-year elective).

Mutually Excluded Courses:

Students may not concurrently enroll in this practicum course and a clinic or another practicum course. Students may concurrently enroll in this practicum course and an externship.

Note:

This practicum course is open to LL.M. students, space permitting.

This practicum may be suitable for evening students who can commit to attending class and participating in 10 hours/week of project work.

THIS PRACTICUM REQUIRES PROFESSOR PERMISSION TO ENROLL. Please send a CV, and an email indicating which trade/WTO or investment law courses you have taken, why you are interested in taking the Practicum, and what it is you think you can add to the teams, to Kemi-Pedro Yarrow at (op92@georgetown.edu) by Wednesday, October 5, 2022. After October 5, please contact Prof. Katrin Kuhlmann to inquire whether spaces remain available; if so, students will be admitted on a rolling basis at that time. 

This is a four-credit course. Two credits will be awarded for the two-hour weekly seminar and two credits will be awarded for approximately 10 hours of project work per week, for a minimum of 11 weeks. Both the seminar and the project work will be graded.

Students who enroll in this course will be automatically enrolled in both the seminar and project components and may not take either component separately. After Add/Drop, a student who wishes to withdraw from a practicum course must obtain permission from the faculty member and the Assistant Dean for Experiential Education. The Assistant Dean will grant such withdrawal requests only when remaining enrolled in the practicum would cause significant hardship for the student. A student who is granted permission to withdraw will be withdrawn from both the seminar and project components.

Default attendance rule for all practicum courses (unless the professor indicates otherwise): Regular and punctual attendance is required at all practicum seminars and fieldwork placements. Students in project-  based practicum courses are similarly required to devote the requisite number of hours to their project. If a student must miss a seminar, fieldwork, or project work, he or she must speak to the professor as soon as possible to discuss the absence. Unless the professor indicates otherwise, a student with more than one unexcused absence from the practicum seminar (out of 13 total seminar sessions), or one week of unexcused absences from the fieldwork or project work (out of a total of 11 weeks of fieldwork or project work), may receive a lower grade or, at the professor’s discretion, may be withdrawn from the practicum course. 
 

LAW 1476 v00 International Law and the New Global Political Economy Seminar

J.D. Seminar (cross-listed) | 2-3 credit hours

Recent electoral results in the United Kingdom and the United States have challenged the liberal globalization agenda of the last three decades. The UK is leaving the European Union and the Trump administration has withdrawn from the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), called for a renegotiation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and advanced an America First foreign policy. Discontent with the effects of global markets includes job losses, wage stagnation, growing income inequality, and downward mobility of the middle class. How are these effects related to the international legal architecture states have set up, including international trade and investment agreements, international tax regimes, financial regulation and labor norms? Can’t these negative results be addressed primarily and more effectively at the national level?

This moment offers a key opportunity to think of an alternative globalization. So far, there are two strong, emerging positions in the global economic debate. On the one hand opposition to globalization, often accompanied by xenophobic and discriminatory rhetoric, blames foreign trade, immigration and racial minorities for the economic foibles of society. On the other hand, there is a defense of existing liberal globalization as the enlightened economic path that needs to be better explained and at the most softened. Can we imagine a different type of globalization? One that recognizes the gains that societies may accrue from integration while addressing seriously the dislocation and negative distributional consequences? Does this require that we re-imagine a different role for the State in the market? Does it entail a reform of our existing global institutional arrangements? What role may international law play in responding to these challenges?

A leading scholar in the field of international law will present a paper each week. The papers represent a wide range of topics and methodological approaches connected to the colloquium questions. Students will be expected to read the papers and write a short critique of five of the papers. You will also have an opportunity to engage in discussion with the paper’s author. In addition to the students enrolled in the colloquium, Georgetown Law faculty and other DC area scholars and practitioners will be invited to participate in the weekly paper presentations. Lunch will be provided.

Note: The first class will meet on Friday, January 24, 2020 in Hotung 5020.  

This seminar requires a paper. J.D. students must register for the 3-credit section of the seminar if they wish to write a paper fulfilling the J.D. Upperclass Legal Writing Requirement. The paper requirements of the 2-credit section will not fulfill the J.D. Upperclass Legal Writing Requirement.

LAW 3029 v00 International Negotiations

LL.M Seminar (cross-listed) | 2 credit hours

The International Negotiation course will focus on the methods and objectives for successfully engaging in international negotiations. This course will include in-depth reviews and class discussions of negotiations conducted by governments, the private sector, non-governmental organizations, as well as international institutions. The course will provide important insight into the necessary preparations and research necessary to conduct international negotiations as well as a better understanding of the complexities and nuance of actual negotiations. The course will provide students an opportunity to review and dissect previous negotiations and prepare and conduct negotiations based on their understanding of what works and what does not. Discussions will focus on the most important aspects of negotiations -- mutual understanding of the expected outcome, in-depth review of the expected positions of the parties, how to accurately understand the extent of any leverage and how to assess a successful outcome. Cultural, linguistic and other possible impediments to a successful negotiation will also be explored to provide students a full understanding of all that goes in to a successful negotiation.

Recommended: Prior enrollment in International Law, Conflicts

Strongly Recommended: Legal writing

Mutually Excluded Courses: Students may not receive credit for this course and the International Negotiations Seminar or International Business Negotiations.

LAW 240 v00 International Negotiations Seminar

J.D. Seminar (cross-listed) | 2 credit hours

This seminar seeks to develop skills and knowledge to participate in negotiations and in particular international business negotiations. Approximately a third of course time is devoted to the negotiating process and analysis of negotiation principles and dynamics. Another third is spent on the cultural, practical, legal and strategic elements of international business transactions. The balance is spent on a series of "mock" negotiations. Students, individually and in groups, experiment with different negotiating techniques and fact situations of increasing complexity. The course requirement is principally satisfied through preparation of a comprehensive negotiated agreement and follow-up memorandum. Heavy emphasis is placed on class participation, including the negotiations. The final negotiating problem requires substantial team work with others, including strategy, analysis, and preparation. Negotiations are carried on both inside and outside normal class time.

Recommended: Contracts.

Mutually Excluded Courses: Students may not receive credit for this course and the International Negotiations Seminar (LAWJ/G-958) or International Negotiations (LAWJ/G-3029) in the graduate program, or International Business Negotiations.

Note: FIRST CLASS ATTENDANCE IS MANDATORY. Enrolled students must be in attendance at the start of the first class session in order to remain enrolled. Waitlisted students must be in attendance at the start of the first class session in order to remain eligible to be admitted off the waitlist.

Students may not withdraw from this class after the add/drop period ends without the permission of the professor.

LAW 958 v00 International Negotiations Seminar

LL.M Seminar (cross-listed) | 2 credit hours

After introductory lectures on negotiation theory and practice, the seminar students will be divided into teams for a series of simulated negotiations covering government-to-government, government-private and transnational private negotiations.  Student performance in these negotiations and class discussions will comprise most of the course grade; no research paper or examination is required.

Mutually Excluded Courses: Students may receive credit for this course and International Business Negotiations. Students may NOT receive credit for both this course and International Negotiations or the J.D. course, International Negotiations Seminar.

Note: FIRST CLASS ATTENDANCE IS MANDATORY.  Enrolled students must be in attendance at the start of the first class session in order to remain enrolled. Waitlisted students must be in attendance at the start of the first class session in order to remain eligible to be admitted off the waitlist.

LAW 820 v01 International Protection of Intellectual Property Through the WTO

LL.M Course | 2 credit hours

This course deals with international protection of intellectual property through the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the WTO agreements which cover intellectual property: the TRIPS Agreement, The Paris Convention and the Berne Convention. The course will also cover the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the Dispute Settlement Understanding, which are essential in enforcing these agreements.

The course examines in detail the relevant U.S. law and how the extraterritorial application of these laws effects international enforcement of intellectual property. These laws are Section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930 which prohibits the importation of articles into the United States which infringe U.S. patents, trademarks, or copyrights, and Section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974 which allows retaliation against foreign countries which impose unjustifiable or unreasonable restrictions against U.S. commerce.

The main WTO cases in intellectual property will be read and analyzed. These will include the cases on Sections 337 and 301, which have limited the United States’ ability to unilaterally affect intellectual property law. Other cases will include the U.S. – Cuba Havana Club case, the Indian Pharmaceutical case, the Internet Gaming case, the U.S. Musical Copyright case, the European Geographical Indication (GI) case, the Canada Pharmaceutical patent case, and the China Intellectual Property Violation case. The course will study the Doha Agreement, which allows the compulsory licensing of pharmaceutical patents to fight pandemic diseases particularly HIV/AIDS. Finally, the course will review any significant changes in trade law or existing trade agreements, particularly as relates to intellectual property, that may occur under the Trump administration

Mutually Excluded Courses: Students may not receive credit for both this course and Intellectual Property in World Trade (LAWG/J-226).

LAW 244 v01 International Trade

J.D. Course (cross-listed) | 3 credit hours

This three-credit survey course is designed to introduce students to the legal system governing international economic transactions and international economic relations, with a focus on the World Trade Organization (WTO) and its constituent treaty instruments. The primary objective of the course is to give the student an in-depth overview of the world trading system and some exposure to its particular details. The course will cover the basic principles and mechanisms of international trade law, including most-favored-nation (MFN) and national treatment, and relevant law in different substantive areas, including tariffs, quotas, services, intellectual property, trade remedies, and standards.  We will also examine the issue of development in the WTO and trade treaties and whether treaty obligations constrain countries’ policy autonomy and hinder their ability to pursue successful development strategies, as well as the tensions between trade liberalization and other values, such as those concerning the environment, health and safety, workers’ welfare, and human rights.

The course will also cover current trends and issues in international trade law.  The Uruguay Round established the WTO in 1994 as the premiere forum for negotiating multilateral trade agreements and adjudicating international trade disputes; however, the negotiation and adjudication functions of the WTO currently face significant challenges.  Globally, more than 300 regional or bilateral trade agreements have been negotiated, including the recent United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA) and Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP), with implications for both individual countries and the global trading system overall.  The course will include current developments at the WTO, bilateral and regional trade agreements (including U.S.-Europe and U.S.-Kenya negotiations and trade models in other parts of the world like China’s Belt and Road Initiative and the African Continental Free Trade Area), Brexit, and U.S. “trade wars” pursued on national security grounds.

Mutually Excluded Courses: Students may not receive credit for both this course and International Trade and the WTO or International Trade Law or World Trade Organization: Law, Policy and Dispute Settlement; or the graduate course, International Trade Law and Regulation.

LAW 1799 v00 International Trade and Investment Law

J.D. Course (cross-listed) | 3 credit hours

This three-credit course introduces students to the legal and policy aspects of international trade and investment law, two pillars of international economic law that have developed dispute settlement systems. These two areas of law affect a broad array of national legislation, regulation, and administrative practice, as well as other areas of international law and policy, such as development, human rights, climate change, and other environmental issues. Both trade law and investment law have raised anxieties regarding their linkages, effects, and overlaps with non-economic issues. The United States, European Union, China, and many other countries have actively engaged in litigation and new negotiations in both fields of law. In international trade law, governments bring legal claims against each other for breaches of obligations, while private lawyers work with private commercial interests behind the scenes and often directly on behalf of governments. International investment law, in contrast, provides direct rights to private foreign investors to bring claims against governments. These disputes are proliferating and sometimes overlap with international trade law claims. In the past, the U.S. always sought protection for its investors in developing countries, but with shifts in the global economy, the U.S. increasingly became subject to such suits by foreign investors. This course will introduce students to both of these areas of international law practice.

LAW 673 v01 International Trade and Investment Litigation and Strategy

LL.M Seminar (cross-listed) | 2 credit hours

This course will teach students the practical aspects involved in litigation of international trade and investment disputes. Its goal is to prepare students entering either private practice or government service to handle complex litigation in those fields. The course will provide a comparative analysis of the dispute settlement mechanism of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and Investor-State arbitration. While it will focus on procedural issues and case management, the first sessions will provide an overview of the legal framework of the multilateral trading system and investment treaty law. It will identify and analyze each phase of the proceedings of WTO disputes (under the Dispute Settlement Understanding) and of investor-State arbitrations (mainly under the arbitration rules of the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes and Chapter Eleven of the North American Free Trade Agreement). Some of the topics that will be covered include: pre-trial preparation, formal initiation of a dispute, constitution of panels and tribunals, discretionary procedural issues, evidentiary issues, jurisdictional and other preliminary objections, written pleadings, conduct of hearings, use of witnesses and experts, awards and rulings, recourses, implementation and enforcement, and in general case management. The analysis and discussions in class will be based on treaty text, jurisprudence and the practical, hands-on experience of the professors. Guest-speakers – including practitioners, government officials, or staff from relevant international organizations – will be invited to a few sessions. Students will be expected to participate in class discussions and in simulations.

Recommended: Basic courses in public international law and international trade.

LAW 244 v05 International Trade Law

J.D. Course (cross-listed) | 3 credit hours

Economic interdependence between countries and across production chains has grown exponentially. Yet, today, economic globalization is under attack. In this context, existing rules on international trade, and negotiating fora to potentially change those rules, are key. This course focuses on the rules and institutions established under the World Trade Organization (WTO) as well as selected regional trade agreements. What are the benefits and risks of trade liberalization from legal, economic and political perspectives? How can trade liberalization go hand in hand with pursuing public policy goals such as protecting the environment or labour standards ("non-trade concerns"), job creation or promoting the economic development of poor countries? The course will offer an in-depth, practical knowledge of substantive WTO law drawing heavily on case law from dispute settlement practice. It will address the basic principles of trade in goods and trade in services as well as more specific WTO agreements on, for example, health measures, subsidies, trade remedies and intellectual property rights. The course will also focus on the unique WTO mechanism for the settlement of trade disputes, and especially on how it balances trade liberalization with non-trade concerns as well as how it copes with increasing trade tensions between OECD countries and emerging economies like Brazil, China, India and Russia.

Mutually Excluded Courses: Students may not receive credit for both this course and International Trade and the WTO or World Trade Organization: Law, Policy and Dispute Settlement; or the graduate course, International Trade Law and Regulation.

Note: There are no prerequisites for this course. 

This course will meet 2 times per week in the weeks of August 30 - September 17 and October 11- October 29. In addition, there will be three classes taught remotely on October 7, November 11 and November 16. 

LAW 966 v01 International Trade Law & Regulation

LL.M Course (cross-listed) | 2-3 credit hours

Examines international trade laws and regulations and World Trade Organization agreements affecting international trade, and the relationship of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994 and other international agreements to U.S. law and practice. Considers, in detail, the U.S. antidumping, countervailing duty, safeguards (Section 201) laws and regulations and the WTO agreements that establish multinational standards applicable to the use of those remedies. Examines the WTO agreements on services, intellectual property, and technical barriers to trade. Examines the statutory remedies, particularly Section 301, that are available to address foreign restrictions on U.S. exports of goods, capital, services, and intellectual property. Analyzes the U.S.-China "trade war" and resulting tariffs and agreements.  Evaluates the role of Congress, the U.S. Trade Representative, and other U.S. agencies in setting trade policy and overseeing administration of the trade laws. Analyzes the WTO procedures for dispute resolution and key WTO panel and Appellate Body decisions. Reviews free trade agreements, including the U.S.-Mexico-Canada Agreement, as well as bilateral investment treaties. The course includes a weekly discussion of current events affecting international trade law and regulation.

Mutually Excluded Courses: Students may not receive credit for both this course and the J.D. course, International Trade or World Trade Organization: Law, Policy and Dispute Settlement.

Note: The 3-credit section of this course meets the "Category 1" requirement for the WTO certificate program.
The two-credit class requires a final exam; the three-credit class requires a paper. J.D. students must register for the three-credit section of the seminar if they wish to write a paper fulfilling the Upperclass Legal Writing Requirement for JD students. The paper requirements of the two-credit section will not fulfill the Upperclass Legal Writing Requirement for JD students.

LAW 1770 v00 International Trade Rules and Climate Change Seminar - Can the Two Get Along?

J.D. Seminar (cross-listed) | 2-3 credit hours

Global climate change is most significant environmental challenge of the 21st century. Because the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) result from virtually every kind of economic activity -- driving a car, heating a home, operating a cement factory, raising chickens -- any policy aimed at reducing emissions will have significant and broad-based impacts on domestic economies around the world.  And because most of those economic activities involve the movement of goods, services, people or intellectual property rights across international borders, policy actions taken in response to climate change can implicate global trading rules.

As countries around the world adopt different approaches to addressing the threat of climate change, the risk of conflict between basic rules governing international trade and measures taken to control GHG emissions rises.  This seminar will explore those overlaps and potential for conflict versus the opportunity for the global trading system to contribute to the reduction in GHG emissions.  The course will include a survey of the basic international rules touching on climate change, including the Paris Agreement, underlying UNFCC documents, the UN’s sustainable development goals, human rights agreements and the basic international trade rules of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and key regional agreements, including the EU treaties and the USMCA.  It will examine a number of the key issues at the intersection of trade and climate, including whether and under what conditions countries can impose a carbon border adjustment mechanism that is consistent with the WTO rules; the increasing use of government subsidies to promote the development and use of green technologies and whether new rules on subsidies are needed to regulate them; the increased clamoring for the sharing of cutting-edge green technologies, notwithstanding the WTO’s intellectual property rules; the growing volume of cross-border trade in electricity and the expansion of renewable energy and intellectual property rights feeding into internationally-operated smart grids; the need for the development of accepted and enforced standards for “green” finance; and the implications of climate change for human rights and immigration policies as rising sea levels, severe droughts and extensive fires force massive migrations.

The seminar will also explore the areas in which the trading system could make a positive contribution to the fight against GHG emissions, including the options for limiting fossil fuel and fishery subsidies and supporting the financing of renewable energy facilities.  In addition, it will examine whether the current exceptions to the trading rules provide sufficient policy space for innovative approaches to climate change.

Learning Objectives: The primary objective of this course is for students to develop an understanding of the potential for conflicts between trade measures and trade rules with efforts to restrain or tax GHG emissions, along with WTO-consistent policy and financial options to support the fight against climate change. The course will give students to opportunity to develop cutting-edge proposals of significant value to political and thought leaders around the world about how best to use the trading system to support climate mitigation and adaptation measures.

Note: This seminar requires a paper. J.D. students must register for the 3 credit section of the seminar if they wish to write a paper fulfilling the Upperclass Legal Writing Requirement. The paper requirements of the 2 credit section will not fulfill the Upperclass Legal Writing Requirement.

LAW 959 v00 International Trade, Development & the Common Good

LL.M Seminar (cross-listed) | 2-3 credit hours

This course will examine the connection between trade law and development, including aspects of international and regional trade agreements, comparative law, and diverse areas of market regulation at the national level. Overall, the seminar will highlight the role of law and regulation as a driver for sustainable development and inclusive growth and link broader legal frameworks and policy debates with the needs of individuals and enterprises. It will engage students in ways in which economic law can help encourage sustainable and inclusive development and will assess challenges associated with legal and regulatory capacity and the uneven implementation of laws in practice. Cross-cutting and inter-disciplinary approaches in the field, such as socio-legal approaches, human rights, food security, the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and gender and trade will also be discussed throughout the seminar.

The seminar will take place in three phases. In Phase I, the seminar will explore the historical and institutional relationship between trade and development, including World Trade Organization (WTO) disciplines, regional trade agreements (RTAs), and other relevant international legal frameworks.  Phase II will focus on different issues and will cover a number of substantive aspects of trade and development in depth, all of which impact stakeholders and communities and hold greater potential to contribute to the common good.  Specific areas of focus will include domestic market regulation and investment, non-tariff measures, regulation of services, trade facilitation, agriculture, labor and environment, intellectual property rights, gender, and digital trade.  Phase III of the course will consist of an in-class exercise to apply the theory and substantive legal approaches discussed in Parts I and II in the context to practical trade and development challenges. 

Readings will be drawn from a variety of viewpoints and sources – law review articles, white papers, academic journals, newspapers and magazines, and excerpts from books – and will cut across trade and economic law, inclusive economic development, and business.  The readings will highlight different aspects of the legal and regulatory environment in the context of encouraging sustainable and inclusive development globally and at the grassroots level. Discussion questions will be provided for each session, which can be used as the basis for class preparation

The course will also incorporate short, practical case studies that illustrate how different issues in trade, development, and economic regulation can be applied from the perspective of different stakeholders (entrepreneurs, countries, and communities).  Seminar members will be asked to assume roles in discussion of these case studies, which will count towards class participation and lay the groundwork for the final paper.  Questions to guide the case study analysis will also be provided. 

In addition to the readings assigned for each session, optional background readings will be included for students wishing to explore a topic in greater depth (additional background reading is recommended for students who have not taken a trade law course, but the course does not have any prerequisites). 

Note: Only the 3-CR section will fulfill the WTO & International Trade Certificate List C requirement.

LAW 708 v00 International Trade, Intellectual Property Rights, & Public Health

LL.M Seminar (cross-listed) | 2 credit hours

This course will cover the interface between the intellectual property rights, international trade and public health, focusing in particular on the WTO TRIPS Agreement and subsequent decisions, including on the Covid-19 waiver, if approved. It will provide an introduction to the provisions of WTO agreements relevant to public health (other than TRIPS), and to the law and economics relating to IPRs and public health; it will cover the provisions of the TRIPS Agreement relevant to public health, and discuss the relevant disputes settled in the WTO. It will examine the background, content and implications of the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health and of the subsequent TRIPS amendment implementing compulsory licensing for exports. It will devote a session to Covid-19 and infectious disease pandemics. It will also discuss the relevance of bilateral or regional free trade area agreements to the subject.

The course would study relevant national/regional implementing legislation, for example on compulsory licenses, and discuss use of the WTO export compulsory license provisions. In addition to the final paper, students will be graded on class participation, individual presentations and group exercises, an example of the last being a hypothetical case study of exports, with students taking up the role of legal advisors based in either the importing country or the exporting country.

Finally, the course will also cover recent work on trade, intellectual property and public health in other intergovernmental organizations, in particular in the World Health Organization

Recommended: Coursework in International Trade, Intellectual Property Rights, or Public Health.

LAW 676 v02 Investor-State Dispute Resolution

LL.M Course | 2 credit hours

The subject of investor-state disputes and their resolution lies at the cutting edge of international law, and is a major factor in the development of the global economic system in years to come. Study of this form of arbitration provides insight into the evolving shape of customary international law, the conflict between capital-importing and capital-exporting states, and the status of individuals in the international legal order. This seminar will provide students with a firm grounding in the history, present practice, and future implications of arbitration between foreign investors and host states, sanctioned by multilateral and bilateral investment treaties. Topics that will be covered in this course are the history of the treatment of aliens and investments under international law; an overview of the most important international treaties that give investors a right to arbitration of claims; the most important elements of procedure that characterize investor-state arbitration, including tribunal composition, jurisdiction, evidence, award and challenge or annulment; substantive law of investment arbitration, the standards that apply when a tribunal determines whether a breach of the treaty has occurred; and the future development of investor-state arbitration including the challenges of globalization and other stresses, the clash of capital-importing and capital-exporting countries, environmental protection and free trade, restrictions on state sovereignty, the construction of an international investment jurisprudence, the limits on arbitrability, and the expansion of multilateral investment protections worldwide. Active participation in discussion of the course materials is required.

Prerequisite: International Law I.

Recommended: International Commercial Arbitration

Note: Students may not withdraw from this class after the add/drop period ends without the permission of the professor.

LAW 676 v00 Investor-State Dispute Resolution Seminar

LL.M Seminar | 3 credit hours

The subject of investor-state disputes and their resolution lies at the cutting edge of international law, and is a major factor in the development of the global economic system in years to come. Study of this form of arbitration provides insight into the evolving shape of customary international law, the conflict between capital-importing and capital-exporting states, and the status of individuals in the international legal order. This seminar will provide students with a firm grounding in the history, present practice, and future implications of arbitration between foreign investors and host states, sanctioned by multilateral and bilateral investment treaties. Topics that will be covered in this course are the history of the treatment of aliens and investments under international law; an overview of the most important international treaties that give investors a right to arbitration of claims; the most important elements of procedure that characterize investor-state arbitration, including tribunal composition, jurisdiction, evidence, award and challenge or annulment; substantive law of investment arbitration, the standards that apply when a tribunal determines whether a breach of the treaty has occurred; and the future development of investor-state arbitration including the challenges of globalization and other stresses, the clash of capital-importing and capital-exporting countries, environmental protection and free trade, restrictions on state sovereignty, the construction of an international investment jurisprudence, the limits on arbitrability, and the expansion of multilateral investment protections worldwide. Active participation in discussion of the course materials is required.

Prerequisite: International Law I

Recommended: International Commercial Arbitration

Note: For the Spring section: FIRST CLASS ATTENDANCE IS MANDATORY.  Enrolled students must be in attendance at the start of the first class session in order to remain enrolled. Waitlisted students must be in attendance at the start of the first class session in order to remain eligible to be admitted off the waitlist.

Student who no longer wishes to remain enrolled will not be permitted to drop the class but may request a withdrawal BY PROFESSOR PERMISSION ONLY.

This course requires a paper. J.D. Students: this will fulfill the J.D. Upperclass Legal Writing Requirement.

LAW 292 v07 Law and Development

J.D. Course (cross-listed) | 3 credit hours

This three-credit survey course is designed to introduce students to the different dimensions of law and development, integrating legal, historical, academic, and practical models and approaches.  The course will cover a range of issues and substantive areas of law, including economic and social development and rule of law approaches; human rights law; comparative law; peace and security; international economic law (including trade, finance, aid, and investment);  labor, environmental, and health law; market regulation; institutional models for advancing law and development; gender; and sustainable development.  It will also examine the increasing role of technology and data in law and development and the connection between law and the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).  Throughout the semester, the course will explore how different areas of law address questions of equity, inclusiveness, vulnerability, and environmental sustainability.  There are no prerequisites for this course, and it is intended to be both an introduction to law and development and a complement to other course offerings at Georgetown Law.  

The course is divided into three parts.  The first part begins with an exploration of the foundations of law and development, including an examination of the issues, debates, and academic literature.  This portion of the course will examine the role of governments and institutions in law and development (including the World Bank, WTO, IMF, UN system, donor organizations, regional organizations, and others), as well as how rules are designed and implemented from the perspective of individual and community stakeholders.  Part I of the course will also highlight the evolution of different approaches, theories, and models within law and development, including economic approaches (structural change approaches, dependency theory, neoclassical/neoliberal approaches, endogenous growth theory, post-Washington consensus models, and others), promotion and criticism of rule of law approaches (legal pluralism, institutionalism and new institutional economics, constitutionalism, international vs. national law approaches, legal empowerment, informality, and others), and current movements such as law and political economy and TWAIL (Third World Approaches to International Law).   

The second part of the course will introduce students to the different substantive dimensions of law and development.  This segment will allow students to both understand the legal foundations of different aspects of law and development and explore intersections between different areas of law as they relate to development, highlighting the cross-cutting nature of law and development.  Topics will include human rights law, international economic law (finance, investment, and trade), conflict and resource control, gender and development, corruption and development, development assistance, and law and development aspects of health, environment, and climate change. 

The third part of the course will focus on issue-based and regional case studies, allowing students to apply what was covered in the first two parts of the course in different contexts and explore ways in which law has been – or could be – a driver for development.  Issue-focused case studies will include land tenure and contracts, labor, agriculture and food security, intellectual property rights, and data and development.  Regional case studies will include Africa, Asia (with some focus on China and India, among other countries), and Latin America.  In this part of the course, students will also assess which law and development approaches have been best suited to different circumstances, economies, cultures, and communities. 

Learning Objectives

The course has several interconnected learning objectives:

  • Understand the legal, historical, economic, and political context of different aspects of law and development, individually and in relation to each other;
  • Examine different normative approaches to law and development, globally and regionally;
  • Interpret academic research, relevant excerpts from international treaties, provisions in bilateral and regional agreements, and laws and regulations, building an understanding of the inter-connected nature of different legal instruments;
  • Assess law and development challenges facing governments and international institutions, identifying possible approaches and trade-offs;
  • Understand how economic, social, and sustainable development can be further incorporated into soft and hard law, as well as international, regional, and national law;
  • Introduce students to different roles for lawyers in the field of law and development; and
  • Equip students with the knowledge and tools to approach law as a tool for promoting social, economic, and sustainable development. 

LAW 2075 v01 Negotiations Seminar (LLM - Week One)

LL.M Seminar | 3 credit hours

This interactive seminar is designed to teach both the theory and practice of negotiation. The goal is to improve students’ understanding of negotiation as well as their ability to negotiate effectively. Students will spend much of their time participating in negotiation exercises and simulations from a variety of practice areas. Through the in-class negotiation exercises, debriefings, and lectures, students will develop and sharpen skills in the areas of listening, asking questions, creative thinking, and persuasive communication. Class lectures and discussions will focus on such topics as the difference between competitive and integrative bargaining, the ethical dimensions of negotiations, the importance of reputations, and the value in planning and choosing negotiation strategies.
The seminar will meet during Week One (Monday - Friday). Attendance at all sessions is mandatory. The class sessions are designed to provide an environment that is conducive for all students to experiment with different negotiation skills and behaviors. Students are not graded on the outcomes or results of negotiations, but on commitment to the materials and exercises. 

Mutually Excluded Courses: Students may not receive credit for both this course and the Negotiations and Mediation Seminar; the Negotiations Seminar; or Negotiation and Mediation in Public Interest Law Settings or Negotiations and Drafting Seminar or Contracts: Structure and Negotiations.

Note: WEEK ONE COURSE. This seminar will meet for one week only on the following days: Monday, January 9, 2023, through Friday, January 13, 2023, 9:00 a.m. - 6:00 p.m.

ATTENDANCE IS MANDATORY AT ALL CLASS SESSIONS. Enrolled students must be in attendance at the start of the first class session in order to remain enrolled. Waitlisted students must be in attendance at the start of the first class session in order to remain eligible to be admitted off the waitlist. All enrolled students must attend each class session in its entirety. Failure to attend the first class session in its entirety will result in a drop; failure to attend any subsequent class session in its entirety will result in a withdrawal.

Enrolled students will have until the beginning of the second class session to request a drop by contacting the Office of the Registrar; a student who no longer wishes to remain enrolled after the second class session begins will not be permitted to drop the class but may request a withdrawal from an academic advisor in the Office of Academic Affairs. Withdrawals are permitted up until the last class for this specific course.

There is a course materials fee for this course, which covers outside vendor materials purchased on behalf of all enrolled students (these materials are distributed as part of the course’s in-class assignments and exercises). This fee is posted to your student account in August (for Fall courses) or December (for Spring courses), or as soon as you are enrolled in the course, whichever is later. Students who drop the course will be refunded the amount. Students approved to withdraw will not be refunded.

This course is graded pass-fail and is only open to foreign-educated LL.M. students (i.e., those students who do not have a U.S. J.D. degree).

LAW 1653 v00 Resolution of International Financial Crises Seminar

J.D. Seminar (cross-listed) | 2 credit hours

Overview

While the globalization of private capital markets has generated important welfare gains, it has also been responsible for episodes of financial instability, often with devastating consequences. The Course will analyze the underlying causes of international financial crises and assess the efforts of policy makers to mitigate their impact. The Course will be interdisciplinary in nature, focusing on the legal, financial and economic dimensions of these crises and the relevant policy responses. Key lessons will be distilled from an in-depth analysis of the most important episodes, including the Latin American Debt Crisis, the Asian Financial Crisis, Argentina’s default in 2001 and the crises precipitated by the Great Recession of 2008, including the Eurozone Crisis. We will also conduct a simulation, with students playing the roles of the various policy makers seeking to contain and ultimately resolve the crisis.

The Course will analyze both the common patterns of the previous international financial crises and the extent to which they have differed. In that context, the Course will investigate how the dynamics of these crises have been driven both by the evolution of credit markets (including the transition from bank lending to bond issuance) and changes in the underlying legal framework that supports these markets. The Course will analyze the competing considerations faced by policy makers as they seek to mitigate the impact of a crisis – often with large scale financial assistance – without increasing the risk of future crises through the creation of excessive moral hazard. In that context, the Course will review in some detail the role played by the International Monetary Fund in managing these crises.      

Learning Objectives

By the end of the course, students will have gained an understanding of how global financial markets have evolved over the past 40 years and how this evolution has both promoted welfare and created significant financial instability. They will learn how the relevant legal frameworks have interacted with this evolution to shape creditor incentives, with a focus on regulatory design, contractual provisions and litigation strategies. Through in-depth case studies, they will gain insight into how public policy makers have struggled to both contain the impact of these crises while, at the same time, introducing reforms to prevent them from recurring. In particular, they will gain an understanding of the legal, policy and governance framework of the IMF and the role it plays as a financial fire fighter. More generally, they will gain an understanding of the challenges faced by policy makers when addressing a systemic crisis, with a focus on the key actors, namely: (a) the governments of the countries experiencing the crisis, (b) private creditors and (c) the IMF. Existing and former officials will participate in a number of classes to share their own perspectives regarding the key lessons to be distilled from previous episodes.

LAW 1218 v00 Trade, Money, and Trust: The Law and Policy of Globalization Seminar

J.D. Seminar (cross-listed) | 3 credit hours

Successful management of globalization has emerged as the central challenge of our time. Globalization has been blamed for many of our social and economic problems from inequality to stagnant growth. The international regulatory failures exposed by the financial crisis of 2008-2009 have called into question not only the regulatory framework for financial stability, but also the entire framework of international norms and institutions known as Bretton Woods that have been the pillars of global economic regulation. The accompanying collapse in public trust in government experts and private elites has complicated efforts to address these challenges. Populist candidates have swept elections, particularly in the US and UK, based on platforms to reverse the course of international integration. Meanwhile, China and Russia have doubled down on leaders that embrace a return to state controlled economies and traditional notions of regional hegemony. Are we at an historical turning point characterized by GLEXIT – the abandonment of globalization – or will these challenges lead to a Globalization 2.0?

The purpose of this seminar is to look at the role of international economic law in managing globalization, both in terms of extracting the benefits and in addressing the consequences, particularly those negative effects that have fed the backlash. The focus of the seminar will be on the central regulatory regimes governing international economic activity: trade, monetary, investment, finance, competition, tax, sovereign debt and corruption. We will examine the fundamental character and role of legal norms, regulatory systems and international institutions in a world characterized by interdependence and conflict.

This is a research seminar in which the initial eight weekly classes will present a survey of regulatory regimes designed to give students a framework for what have historically been somewhat distinct “silos” but which each illustrate the recurring tensions between fragmentation and coherence. We invite student involvement in the specific topics in the field on which we focus. Each student will be asked to provide short papers responding to the readings for each of the initial sessions. Students will be expected to write a research paper on a relevant topic under the guidance of one of the professors and to make a short presentation to the class during the last third of the course. In their research paper, students will be expected to identify a contemporary, global economic regulatory issue and propose solutions drawing on insights from the seminar (and their broader studies) to analyze the problem, propose and defend possible solutions.

The seminar will be taught by professors with a wide range of experience in academia, private practice and government service. Distinguished outside experts will also be called upon to address particular topics within this framework. 

A number of broad themes will be developed to help unravel the complexity of global regulation:

  • What is the role of legal norms in creating efficient and sustainable global markets? Do some problems lend themselves to different types of norms (e.g. soft versus hard law)? What about governance, the formality of legal norms (and institutions) and the role of national sovereignty and subsidiarity?
  • Why do the different global economic regulatory regimes look so different? Why has trade evolved with an advanced set of norms, dispute settlement and enforcement?
  • How have crises and systemic failures contributed to the development of legal regimes? Do crises lead to sustainable and effective regulatory regimes?
  • What role does trust play in the character of legal regimes? Can international economic law be viewed as the objectification of trust? How can trust be sustained when global issues engage citizenry across the most diverse context imaginable?

Recommended: Students may want to familiarize themselves with basic principles of international economic law and areas of international regulation such as international trade, investment and financial regulation. The seminar will include both JD and LLM students and we encourage students with a range of exposure to the underlying subject matter. For insight into the kinds of issues the seminar will address, students are encouraged to review the material in Cottier, Jackson and Lastra, International Law in Financial Regulation and Monetary Affairs, Oxford University Press (2012). Students may also find useful the PBS Documentary, The Ascent of Money; A Financial History of the World, written and presented by Niall Ferguson which is available online at http://www.pbs.org/show/ascent-of-money/.

LAW 780 v01 U.S. and International Customs Law

LL.M Course (cross-listed) | 2 credit hours

As international trade and commerce have increased over the years, customs law has become increasingly more internationalized, important and complex. This course will examine and provide a basic introduction to the rules and principles relating to both U.S. and international customs law. This will include an examination of those rules and principles relating to tariff classification, customs valuation, rules of origin, border enforcement of intellectual property rights and regional trading arrangements. International efforts to facilitate trade and to harmonize and simplify customs laws and procedures will also be examined together with international organizations dealing with customs laws and procedures (such as the World Trade Organization and the World Customs Organization).

Customs authorities are the guardians of national borders. The role of customs authorities in combating terrorism and criminal activity and in securing and safeguarding national borders will also be examined.

No prerequisites.

Mutually Excluded Courses: Students may not receive credit for both this course and Customs Law.

LAW 962 v03 U.S. Export Controls and Economic Sanctions

LL.M Course (cross-listed) | 2 credit hours

Understanding and dealing with U.S. export control and sanction laws have become increasingly important skills for lawyers advising clients who compete in the global economy, including manufacturers, service enterprises, financial institutions, and companies licensing their technology abroad. This course surveys the federal laws and implementing regulations governing the export and re-export of goods, services, technology and software from the United States or by persons subject to U.S. jurisdiction, the extraterritorial reach of re-export controls, prosecution strategies, restrictions on dealings with or in sanctioned countries, prohibitions against dealing with blacklisted parties, and other sanctions that apply to non-U.S. companies and individuals. We also will examine the policies underlying these rules, which are designed to address ever-changing and developing threats to the United States, including Russian aggression in the Ukraine, the nuclear threat posed by Iran, civil war in Syria, missile development in North Korea, and conventional military tensions between the United States and China.

The course is designed to impart the practical skill sets you will need to use and understand the various complex regulatory systems that implement national security rules related to technology and high-tech transfers, including restrictions on release of technology to non-U.S. persons, foreign policy restrictions and licensing requirements. The regulations are implemented under various statutes, such as the International Emergency Economic Powers Act, Trading with the Enemy Act, Arms Export Control Act, and Atomic Energy Act, and regulations issued by various federal agencies, including the U.S. Departments of Commerce, Treasury, State, and Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. We will address each regulatory regime as well as the limited body of relevant case law.

In addition, the course will address multilateral export control regimes, the role they play in shaping U.S. trade laws, the impact of new regimes (such as those under the Chemical Weapons Convention) and the direction of U.S. export controls and sanctions policy in response to the changing threats. We will focus on the U.S. Government’s use of embargoes and other economic sanctions to achieve national security and foreign policy goals of target countries. This course also will provide the skill sets necessary to communicate effectively with licensing agencies and the Defense Department regarding key issues of agency jurisdiction and classification and how these issues affect direct investment in the United States as regulated by the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States.

The course also will focus on the enforcement environment, including the trend of ever-increasing fines, the use of extradition, and imprisonment. We will discuss defense strategies and the potential for global settlements with the Departments of Justice, State, Treasury, and Commerce.

Finally, the course will emphasize developing the working knowledge necessary for hands-on practice and problem-solving in this field. In addition, the course will provide skills sets to assess proposed legislation and regulations in depth, as well as advocacy skills related to legislation and rulemaking.

Recommended: Administrative Law; International Law I.

LAW 872 v00 World Trade Organization: Agreements, Negotiations & Disputes

LL.M Course (cross-listed) | 2 credit hours

The course analyzes the World Trade Organization (WTO) and its agreements, including the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), and the substance and status of negotiations to amend the agreements. It concentrates on the coverage of the agreements, based on their text and interpretive guidance from key dispute settlement decisions. The course also reviews the relevant economic, policy and legal aspects of the international trading system.

LAW 244 v01 International Trade

J.D. Course (cross-listed) | 3 credit hours

This three-credit survey course is designed to introduce students to the legal system governing international economic transactions and international economic relations, with a focus on the World Trade Organization (WTO) and its constituent treaty instruments. The primary objective of the course is to give the student an in-depth overview of the world trading system and some exposure to its particular details. The course will cover the basic principles and mechanisms of international trade law, including most-favored-nation (MFN) and national treatment, and relevant law in different substantive areas, including tariffs, quotas, services, intellectual property, trade remedies, and standards.  We will also examine the issue of development in the WTO and trade treaties and whether treaty obligations constrain countries’ policy autonomy and hinder their ability to pursue successful development strategies, as well as the tensions between trade liberalization and other values, such as those concerning the environment, health and safety, workers’ welfare, and human rights.

The course will also cover current trends and issues in international trade law.  The Uruguay Round established the WTO in 1994 as the premiere forum for negotiating multilateral trade agreements and adjudicating international trade disputes; however, the negotiation and adjudication functions of the WTO currently face significant challenges.  Globally, more than 300 regional or bilateral trade agreements have been negotiated, including the recent United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA) and Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP), with implications for both individual countries and the global trading system overall.  The course will include current developments at the WTO, bilateral and regional trade agreements (including U.S.-Europe and U.S.-Kenya negotiations and trade models in other parts of the world like China’s Belt and Road Initiative and the African Continental Free Trade Area), Brexit, and U.S. “trade wars” pursued on national security grounds.

Mutually Excluded Courses: Students may not receive credit for both this course and International Trade and the WTO or International Trade Law or World Trade Organization: Law, Policy and Dispute Settlement; or the graduate course, International Trade Law and Regulation.

LAW 1799 v00 International Trade and Investment Law

J.D. Course (cross-listed) | 3 credit hours

This three-credit course introduces students to the legal and policy aspects of international trade and investment law, two pillars of international economic law that have developed dispute settlement systems. These two areas of law affect a broad array of national legislation, regulation, and administrative practice, as well as other areas of international law and policy, such as development, human rights, climate change, and other environmental issues. Both trade law and investment law have raised anxieties regarding their linkages, effects, and overlaps with non-economic issues. The United States, European Union, China, and many other countries have actively engaged in litigation and new negotiations in both fields of law. In international trade law, governments bring legal claims against each other for breaches of obligations, while private lawyers work with private commercial interests behind the scenes and often directly on behalf of governments. International investment law, in contrast, provides direct rights to private foreign investors to bring claims against governments. These disputes are proliferating and sometimes overlap with international trade law claims. In the past, the U.S. always sought protection for its investors in developing countries, but with shifts in the global economy, the U.S. increasingly became subject to such suits by foreign investors. This course will introduce students to both of these areas of international law practice.

LAW 244 v05 International Trade Law

J.D. Course (cross-listed) | 3 credit hours

Economic interdependence between countries and across production chains has grown exponentially. Yet, today, economic globalization is under attack. In this context, existing rules on international trade, and negotiating fora to potentially change those rules, are key. This course focuses on the rules and institutions established under the World Trade Organization (WTO) as well as selected regional trade agreements. What are the benefits and risks of trade liberalization from legal, economic and political perspectives? How can trade liberalization go hand in hand with pursuing public policy goals such as protecting the environment or labour standards ("non-trade concerns"), job creation or promoting the economic development of poor countries? The course will offer an in-depth, practical knowledge of substantive WTO law drawing heavily on case law from dispute settlement practice. It will address the basic principles of trade in goods and trade in services as well as more specific WTO agreements on, for example, health measures, subsidies, trade remedies and intellectual property rights. The course will also focus on the unique WTO mechanism for the settlement of trade disputes, and especially on how it balances trade liberalization with non-trade concerns as well as how it copes with increasing trade tensions between OECD countries and emerging economies like Brazil, China, India and Russia.

Mutually Excluded Courses: Students may not receive credit for both this course and International Trade and the WTO or World Trade Organization: Law, Policy and Dispute Settlement; or the graduate course, International Trade Law and Regulation.

Note: There are no prerequisites for this course. 

This course will meet 2 times per week in the weeks of August 30 - September 17 and October 11- October 29. In addition, there will be three classes taught remotely on October 7, November 11 and November 16. 

LAW 966 v01 International Trade Law & Regulation

LL.M Course (cross-listed) | 2-3 credit hours

Examines international trade laws and regulations and World Trade Organization agreements affecting international trade, and the relationship of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994 and other international agreements to U.S. law and practice. Considers, in detail, the U.S. antidumping, countervailing duty, safeguards (Section 201) laws and regulations and the WTO agreements that establish multinational standards applicable to the use of those remedies. Examines the WTO agreements on services, intellectual property, and technical barriers to trade. Examines the statutory remedies, particularly Section 301, that are available to address foreign restrictions on U.S. exports of goods, capital, services, and intellectual property. Analyzes the U.S.-China "trade war" and resulting tariffs and agreements.  Evaluates the role of Congress, the U.S. Trade Representative, and other U.S. agencies in setting trade policy and overseeing administration of the trade laws. Analyzes the WTO procedures for dispute resolution and key WTO panel and Appellate Body decisions. Reviews free trade agreements, including the U.S.-Mexico-Canada Agreement, as well as bilateral investment treaties. The course includes a weekly discussion of current events affecting international trade law and regulation.

Mutually Excluded Courses: Students may not receive credit for both this course and the J.D. course, International Trade or World Trade Organization: Law, Policy and Dispute Settlement.

Note: The 3-credit section of this course meets the "Category 1" requirement for the WTO certificate program.
The two-credit class requires a final exam; the three-credit class requires a paper. J.D. students must register for the three-credit section of the seminar if they wish to write a paper fulfilling the Upperclass Legal Writing Requirement for JD students. The paper requirements of the two-credit section will not fulfill the Upperclass Legal Writing Requirement for JD students.

LAW 370 v02 Business and Human Rights in the Global Economy

J.D. Seminar (cross-listed) | 2 credit hours

Corporations today have a global scale as well as an impact that matches or sometimes exceeds that of governments. Their activities -- from sourcing of raw materials, to processing and production of intermediate or finished goods, to distribution and sale -- have major consequences not only for the human rights of their employees but also for the rights of the individuals and communities impacted by their operations. In many countries, government regulation and oversight are either absent or largely ineffective. Companies in turn struggle to define their responsibilities in the face of these "governance gaps" -- particularly where requirements under national law fall short of international standards in areas such as hours of work and safety and healthy.

A robust and often contentious debate over these issues culminated in the development of the U.N. Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (the “UNGPs”) under the leadership of Special Representative John Ruggie. These Principles establish a framework for considering the respective roles of governments and corporations and outline core concepts of human rights due diligence and effective remedy. In doing so, the UNGPs also inform and to some extent refocus efforts that have emerged over the past 20 years to address these governance gaps and have brought together stakeholders from business, labor, civil society, the investment community, and academia.

At the same time, in recent years there has been an increased push from civil society groups and certain governments to go beyond these "voluntary" efforts and develop a binding business and human rights treaty mechanism; this has met with strong opposition from business and many other governments, including the United States.

Even as "non-regulatory" approaches remain the predominant means of addressing various business and human rights challenges, there also has been a growing focus in recent years on tools through which national governments and international institutions could exercise greater leverage. This includes advocacy for stronger labor and other human rights language in trade agreements, one-way trade preference programs, procurement standards, and the rules and guidelines applied by international financial institutions -- coupled with more aggressive enforcement of those criteria. Expanded efforts to advance that "regulatory" approach in trade policy and elsewhere in some cases has been met with resistance from governments and business, but there also have been examples of emerging consensus among a diverse range of stakeholders.

This course introduces students to this quickly-evolving business and human rights landscape, including the diverse set of multi-stakeholder initiatives -- some, but not all, of which include government participation. We will discuss the guidance provided by the UNGPs and other instruments, the range of stakeholders and how they engage with one another, tools utilized by governments and corporations to implement human rights standards, and how all of these interact in the context of both sector-specific and cross-cutting legal and policy challenges.

Among the questions the course will examine are:

  • Which human rights standards are most relevant to business?
  • What are the appropriate linkages between business policies and practices and the promotion of human rights?
  • Which business and human rights approaches are emerging as “best practices" and perhaps even as recognized norms?
  • What tools to support those are being used by governments and corporations?
  • Who are the principal stakeholders and what are their roles and objectives?
  • What are the strategies for addressing business and human rights "governance gaps" at the national and international levels?
  • What are the opportunities for increased integration of labor/human rights and trade policies, and what are the limitations?
  • What mix of mandatory/regulatory and voluntary/“self-regulatory” approaches has been utilized in different situations to advance human rights objectives? Which approaches have been most effective?
  • How are various business and human rights challenges playing out in specific sectors, and how do these inform the debate about different approaches?

To address these and other key questions, the course will begin with several sessions setting out the relevant legal and policy developments, with special attention to the UNGPs. It will also include a review of different stakeholders and their roles and interests, and examination of concepts of corporate responsibility and corporate accountability, and an analysis of the various approaches to business and human rights advanced by companies, governments, labor, civil society, and through multi-stakeholder initiatives. The second half of the semester will then focus on how these concepts are being applied in particular sectors to address specific business and human rights challenges.

Throughout the course, students will be asked to examine the various approaches and differing roles of key stakeholders, including by playing the roles of those addressing the key issues from the perspectives of corporations, civil society and unions, and governments. The class will be divided into three groups for purposes of this “role playing” -- with each asked to adopt all three perspectives during the course of the semester, both in students’ individual analyses of assigned readings and in group sessions during certain classes.

Learning Objectives:

Introduction to business and human rights landscape, including legal and policy developments, particularly the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights. The course reviews different stakeholders and roles, examines concepts of corporate responsibility and accountability, and analyzes various approaches to business and human rights advanced by stakeholders. The course will also familiarize students with sector specific business and human rights challenges.

Recommended: There are no formal course requirements, but some basic familiarity with international trade and human rights law is assumed.

Mutually Excluded Courses: Students may not receive credit for both this seminar and the practicum course Business and Human Rights.

LAW 3082 v00 Dispute Settlement in International Trade: A Comparative Examination of WTO, Regional & Bilateral Systems

LL.M Course (cross-listed) | 2 credit hours

This course involves an in-depth look, in a seminar-type setting, at different state-to-state dispute settlement systems in the international trade area.  Although the principal focus will be WTO dispute settlement, the course will also examine the new or re-invigorated mechanisms in regional agreements (e.g., RCEP, CPTPP) and bilateral trade and investment agreements of the United States (USMCA, CAFTA) and the EU (Korea FTA, CAI with China). In addition to examining the treaty provisions themselves, the course will involve the close reading of arbitral decisions, as a medium to examine real-world systemic issues regarding dispute settlement, such as the function of terms of reference, approaches to treaty interpretation, confidentiality, coherence between different bodies of international law, the role of precedent, standard of review, the scope of appellate review, implementation and compliance, and remedies. At the same time, students will gain familiarity with some of the leading substantive issues in international trade law. 

Recommended: Background in international trade law and in public international law generally.

Strongly Recommended: A introductory course in international trade law is strongly recommended.

Note: This course will have a final exam and short paper.

LAW 565 v00 Globalization, Work, and Inequality Seminar

J.D. Seminar (cross-listed) | 2-3 credit hours

A backlash against globalization has emerged in advanced economies as a result of job loss, wage stagnation, precarious work and economic insecurity for the middle class. The liberal globalization of the last three decades is under attack for the unequal distribution of its gains and its failure to provide better opportunities for ordinary working people. Reimagining the global economy will require placing work front and center. This seminar will explore the changing nature of the workplace due to global competition and technological change. It will examine important policy debates about how best to create jobs, improve working conditions, and promote economic growth and well-being. We will analyze how a variety of factors, such as new modes of production and technologies, increasing participation of women in the economy, widespread migration flows, increasing global trade and capital mobility, and the rise of informal economies challenge the assumptions underlying traditional labor and employment regulation in both developed and developing countries. We will consider an array of innovative attempts – national, international, transnational, public, private and mixed -- to improve workplace conditions and assure employment opportunity consistent with economic growth and stability. We will also inquire about the moral and political commitments associated with various approaches.
There are no prerequisites. All students are welcome.

Note: This seminar requires a paper. J.D. students must register for the 3-credit section of the seminar if they wish to write a paper fulfilling the J.D. Upperclass Legal Writing Requirement. The paper requirements of the 2-credit section will not fulfill the J.D. Upperclass Legal Writing Requirement.

LAW 226 v00 Intellectual Property in World Trade

J.D. Course (cross-listed) | 3 credit hours

The knowledge, technological inventions, creative works and accumulated experience and expertise of the professional workforce increasingly drives the global economy. Unlike physical capital, this intellectual capital cannot readily be confined to the territorial setting of its origin. The development of cohesive norms to protect intellectual properties on a global basis has thus proven to be an enormous challenge. This course considers this effort by addressing the core international agreements governing intellectual property; norms and norm-making in the international intellectual property rights system; dispute settlement and the enforcement of rights; and tensions arising between intellectual property rights and distinct legal and cultural values.

Mutually Excluded Courses: Students may not receive credit for this course and International Intellectual Property and Development and the graduate course, International Protection of Intellectual Property Through the WTO.

LAW 240 v01 International Business Negotiations

J.D. Seminar | 3 credit hours

This course is structured around a semester-long, simulated negotiation exercise in which the students in this class will represent a US pharmaceutical company (KJH Pharmaceutical Corporation) and the students in a similar class, at the University of Dundee in Scotland, will represent an African agricultural production company (Malundian Cassava Corporation). The two companies are interested in working together to exploit a new technology developed by KJH Pharmaceutical that uses the cassava produced by Malundian Cassava Corporation. The form of their collaboration could be a joint venture, a licensing agreement or a long term supply contract. The negotiations will take place through written exchanges and through live negotiation via videoconference. Substantive law issues related to the transaction, as well as negotiations strategy and related issues, will be addressed in this class.

The purpose of the course is to provide students with an opportunity (i) to gain an introduction to transactional law and experience the sequential development of a business transaction over an extended negotiation, (ii) to study the business and legal issues and strategies that impact the negotiation, (iii) to gain insight into the dynamics of negotiating and structuring international business transactions, (iv) to learn about the role that lawyers and law play in these negotiations, (v) to give students experience in drafting communications, and (vi) to provide negotiating experience in a context that replicates actual legal practice with an unfamiliar opposing party (here, the students at Dundee).

The thrust of this course is class participation and active involvement in the negotiations process. Students are expected to spend time outside of class, working in teams, to prepare for class discussions involving the written exchanges as well as preparing for the live negotiations. Class discussions will focus on the strategy for, and progress of, the negotiations, as well as the substantive legal, business and policy matters that impact on the negotiations. Grades will be based on participation in the exercises, students’ diaries, and a final paper.

Recommended: Prior or concurrent enrollment in Corporations.

Mutually Excluded Courses: Students may receive credit for this course and the graduate course International Negotiations Seminar (LAWJ/G-958). Students may NOT receive credit for this course and the J.D. course International Negotiations Seminar (LAWJ/G-240) or the graduate course International Negotiations (LAWJ/G-3029).

Note: This seminar is open to J.D. students only.

Students may not withdraw from this class after the add/drop period ends without the permission of the professor.

Due to the coordination with the class in Dundee, Scotland, this class does not cancel even if Georgetown Law is closed. In the event of a weather closing, this class will be held via Zoom.

LAW 240 v02 International Business Negotiations

J.D. Seminar | 3 credit hours

This simulation course is structured around a semester-long negotiation exercise in which the students on one team of lawyers will be negotiating with students on another team of lawyers. One team will represent an African agricultural production company (Malundian Cassava Corporation) and the other team will represent a multi-national pharmaceutical company (KJH Pharmaceutical Corporation). In the simulation, the two companies are interested in working together to exploit a new technology developed by KJH Pharmaceutical that requires use of a plant crop (cassava) produced in Malundi and sold by Malundian Cassava Corporation. The form of their business collaboration could be a joint venture, a licensing agreement, or a long-term supply agreement. The negotiations will take place through written exchanges and through face-to-face negotiation sessions. Substantive legal topics related to the transactions, as well as to the process of international negotiation and related issues, will be covered  in this course.

The goals of this course are (i) to introduce students to transactional law and practice, (ii) to provide negotiations training and experience in the context of international transactional practice, and (iii) to develop legal-practice skills. Students will apply their legal and non-legal knowledge in the role of lawyers negotiating an international business transaction, within the controlled environment of the classroom.

This experiential course is built around active involvement in the transactional negotiations process. Students may expect to spend some time outside of the class meetings working in teams to prepare the written exchanges and prepare for the negotiations. Class meetings will focus on the strategy for and the process of the negotiations as well as on many of the substantive legal, business and policy issues that arise in the course of business negotiations. Grades will be based on 1) written self-evaluation “journal” entries and 2) a final paper (see “Course Requirements” below).

Recommended: Prior or concurrent enrollment in Corporations and Contracts.

Mutually Excluded Courses: Students may receive credit for this course and the graduate course International Negotiations Seminar (LAWJ/G-958). Students may NOT receive credit for this course and the J.D. course International Negotiations Seminar (LAWJ/G-240) or the graduate course International Negotiations (LAWJ/G-3029).

Note: This course is open to J.D. students only.

In addition to the 2-hour Monday classes, this class has five Saturday sessions (see times below). These sessions are devoted to the live negotiations. Due to the Saturday sessions, the Monday sessions will end earlier in the semester.

NOTE: In the event of a weather closing, this class may be held via conference call dial-in.

LAW 876 v04 International Business Transactions

LL.M Course (cross-listed) | 3 credit hours

This three credit course is an introductory survey of legal issues that arise in connection with international business transactions.  Subjects covered include:  (1) laws and treaties involved in cross-border business transactions; (2) core international business transactions, including international sales and letters of credit, non-establishment (agency, distribution, contract manufacturing, franchising, licensing) and establishment (branch, subsidiary, joint venture) forms of doing business, equity and debt/project finance transactions, and mergers and acquisitions; (3) fundamental legal concepts such as choice of law, choice of forum, jurisdiction, investment protection (expropriation), anti-corruption and competition regulation, and dispute resolution, focusing on litigation and arbitration, (4) the transfer and protection of intellectual property, and (5) corporate social responsibility.

The learning outcomes for this International Business Transactions course include: (1) basic knowledge and understanding of (a) substantive and procedural laws concerning international business transactions, and (b) the role of private and public international law in the conduct of international business; and (2) international legal analysis and reasoning, problem solving, professional skills, and written and oral communication in the context of international business transactions.

Recommended: International Law I: Introduction to International Law; a course in Finance or Securities Regulation.

Mutually Excluded Courses: Students may not receive credit for both this course and International Business Transactions and International Dispute Resolution or the J.D. course, International Business Transactions.

LAW 1380 v00 International Economic Law & Policy Colloquium

J.D. Seminar (cross-listed) | 2 credit hours

The International Economic Law & Policy Colloquium offers students a new and rigorous research platform for understanding the theory of international economic law and participating in policy analysis. Students will participate alongside graduate students, fellows and visiting scholars at the Institute of International Economic Law with outside speakers and help create, and potentially author, research and policy-oriented products for the Institute of International Economic Law.

Students will be expected to 1) work within a group to prepare weekly responses to weekly presenters hailing from the academy, government and the public policy community and 2) provide a 5-10 page end of the semester brief on a specific policy issue concerning a relevant matter of international economic law. The best issue briefs will be included for publication by IIEL and distributed to policymakers in Washington D.C. and abroad. Topics can include any area of international economic law, including international trade, financial regulation and enforcement, monetary affairs and tax.

Recommended: Ideally students will have taken an advanced course in either a) International Trade and Arbitration b) business law (e.g., Securities Regulation, Bankruptcy, International Business Transactions, or International Finance) or c) International Tax.

LAW 1476 v00 International Law and the New Global Political Economy Seminar

J.D. Seminar (cross-listed) | 2-3 credit hours

Recent electoral results in the United Kingdom and the United States have challenged the liberal globalization agenda of the last three decades. The UK is leaving the European Union and the Trump administration has withdrawn from the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), called for a renegotiation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and advanced an America First foreign policy. Discontent with the effects of global markets includes job losses, wage stagnation, growing income inequality, and downward mobility of the middle class. How are these effects related to the international legal architecture states have set up, including international trade and investment agreements, international tax regimes, financial regulation and labor norms? Can’t these negative results be addressed primarily and more effectively at the national level?

This moment offers a key opportunity to think of an alternative globalization. So far, there are two strong, emerging positions in the global economic debate. On the one hand opposition to globalization, often accompanied by xenophobic and discriminatory rhetoric, blames foreign trade, immigration and racial minorities for the economic foibles of society. On the other hand, there is a defense of existing liberal globalization as the enlightened economic path that needs to be better explained and at the most softened. Can we imagine a different type of globalization? One that recognizes the gains that societies may accrue from integration while addressing seriously the dislocation and negative distributional consequences? Does this require that we re-imagine a different role for the State in the market? Does it entail a reform of our existing global institutional arrangements? What role may international law play in responding to these challenges?

A leading scholar in the field of international law will present a paper each week. The papers represent a wide range of topics and methodological approaches connected to the colloquium questions. Students will be expected to read the papers and write a short critique of five of the papers. You will also have an opportunity to engage in discussion with the paper’s author. In addition to the students enrolled in the colloquium, Georgetown Law faculty and other DC area scholars and practitioners will be invited to participate in the weekly paper presentations. Lunch will be provided.

Note: The first class will meet on Friday, January 24, 2020 in Hotung 5020.  

This seminar requires a paper. J.D. students must register for the 3-credit section of the seminar if they wish to write a paper fulfilling the J.D. Upperclass Legal Writing Requirement. The paper requirements of the 2-credit section will not fulfill the J.D. Upperclass Legal Writing Requirement.

LAW 820 v01 International Protection of Intellectual Property Through the WTO

LL.M Course | 2 credit hours

This course deals with international protection of intellectual property through the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the WTO agreements which cover intellectual property: the TRIPS Agreement, The Paris Convention and the Berne Convention. The course will also cover the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the Dispute Settlement Understanding, which are essential in enforcing these agreements.

The course examines in detail the relevant U.S. law and how the extraterritorial application of these laws effects international enforcement of intellectual property. These laws are Section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930 which prohibits the importation of articles into the United States which infringe U.S. patents, trademarks, or copyrights, and Section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974 which allows retaliation against foreign countries which impose unjustifiable or unreasonable restrictions against U.S. commerce.

The main WTO cases in intellectual property will be read and analyzed. These will include the cases on Sections 337 and 301, which have limited the United States’ ability to unilaterally affect intellectual property law. Other cases will include the U.S. – Cuba Havana Club case, the Indian Pharmaceutical case, the Internet Gaming case, the U.S. Musical Copyright case, the European Geographical Indication (GI) case, the Canada Pharmaceutical patent case, and the China Intellectual Property Violation case. The course will study the Doha Agreement, which allows the compulsory licensing of pharmaceutical patents to fight pandemic diseases particularly HIV/AIDS. Finally, the course will review any significant changes in trade law or existing trade agreements, particularly as relates to intellectual property, that may occur under the Trump administration

Mutually Excluded Courses: Students may not receive credit for both this course and Intellectual Property in World Trade (LAWG/J-226).

LAW 673 v01 International Trade and Investment Litigation and Strategy

LL.M Seminar (cross-listed) | 2 credit hours

This course will teach students the practical aspects involved in litigation of international trade and investment disputes. Its goal is to prepare students entering either private practice or government service to handle complex litigation in those fields. The course will provide a comparative analysis of the dispute settlement mechanism of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and Investor-State arbitration. While it will focus on procedural issues and case management, the first sessions will provide an overview of the legal framework of the multilateral trading system and investment treaty law. It will identify and analyze each phase of the proceedings of WTO disputes (under the Dispute Settlement Understanding) and of investor-State arbitrations (mainly under the arbitration rules of the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes and Chapter Eleven of the North American Free Trade Agreement). Some of the topics that will be covered include: pre-trial preparation, formal initiation of a dispute, constitution of panels and tribunals, discretionary procedural issues, evidentiary issues, jurisdictional and other preliminary objections, written pleadings, conduct of hearings, use of witnesses and experts, awards and rulings, recourses, implementation and enforcement, and in general case management. The analysis and discussions in class will be based on treaty text, jurisprudence and the practical, hands-on experience of the professors. Guest-speakers – including practitioners, government officials, or staff from relevant international organizations – will be invited to a few sessions. Students will be expected to participate in class discussions and in simulations.

Recommended: Basic courses in public international law and international trade.

LAW 959 v00 International Trade, Development & the Common Good

LL.M Seminar (cross-listed) | 2-3 credit hours

This course will examine the connection between trade law and development, including aspects of international and regional trade agreements, comparative law, and diverse areas of market regulation at the national level. Overall, the seminar will highlight the role of law and regulation as a driver for sustainable development and inclusive growth and link broader legal frameworks and policy debates with the needs of individuals and enterprises. It will engage students in ways in which economic law can help encourage sustainable and inclusive development and will assess challenges associated with legal and regulatory capacity and the uneven implementation of laws in practice. Cross-cutting and inter-disciplinary approaches in the field, such as socio-legal approaches, human rights, food security, the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and gender and trade will also be discussed throughout the seminar.

The seminar will take place in three phases. In Phase I, the seminar will explore the historical and institutional relationship between trade and development, including World Trade Organization (WTO) disciplines, regional trade agreements (RTAs), and other relevant international legal frameworks.  Phase II will focus on different issues and will cover a number of substantive aspects of trade and development in depth, all of which impact stakeholders and communities and hold greater potential to contribute to the common good.  Specific areas of focus will include domestic market regulation and investment, non-tariff measures, regulation of services, trade facilitation, agriculture, labor and environment, intellectual property rights, gender, and digital trade.  Phase III of the course will consist of an in-class exercise to apply the theory and substantive legal approaches discussed in Parts I and II in the context to practical trade and development challenges. 

Readings will be drawn from a variety of viewpoints and sources – law review articles, white papers, academic journals, newspapers and magazines, and excerpts from books – and will cut across trade and economic law, inclusive economic development, and business.  The readings will highlight different aspects of the legal and regulatory environment in the context of encouraging sustainable and inclusive development globally and at the grassroots level. Discussion questions will be provided for each session, which can be used as the basis for class preparation

The course will also incorporate short, practical case studies that illustrate how different issues in trade, development, and economic regulation can be applied from the perspective of different stakeholders (entrepreneurs, countries, and communities).  Seminar members will be asked to assume roles in discussion of these case studies, which will count towards class participation and lay the groundwork for the final paper.  Questions to guide the case study analysis will also be provided. 

In addition to the readings assigned for each session, optional background readings will be included for students wishing to explore a topic in greater depth (additional background reading is recommended for students who have not taken a trade law course, but the course does not have any prerequisites). 

Note: Only the 3-CR section will fulfill the WTO & International Trade Certificate List C requirement.

LAW 708 v00 International Trade, Intellectual Property Rights, & Public Health

LL.M Seminar (cross-listed) | 2 credit hours

This course will cover the interface between the intellectual property rights, international trade and public health, focusing in particular on the WTO TRIPS Agreement and subsequent decisions, including on the Covid-19 waiver, if approved. It will provide an introduction to the provisions of WTO agreements relevant to public health (other than TRIPS), and to the law and economics relating to IPRs and public health; it will cover the provisions of the TRIPS Agreement relevant to public health, and discuss the relevant disputes settled in the WTO. It will examine the background, content and implications of the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health and of the subsequent TRIPS amendment implementing compulsory licensing for exports. It will devote a session to Covid-19 and infectious disease pandemics. It will also discuss the relevance of bilateral or regional free trade area agreements to the subject.

The course would study relevant national/regional implementing legislation, for example on compulsory licenses, and discuss use of the WTO export compulsory license provisions. In addition to the final paper, students will be graded on class participation, individual presentations and group exercises, an example of the last being a hypothetical case study of exports, with students taking up the role of legal advisors based in either the importing country or the exporting country.

Finally, the course will also cover recent work on trade, intellectual property and public health in other intergovernmental organizations, in particular in the World Health Organization

Recommended: Coursework in International Trade, Intellectual Property Rights, or Public Health.

LAW 676 v02 Investor-State Dispute Resolution

LL.M Course | 2 credit hours

The subject of investor-state disputes and their resolution lies at the cutting edge of international law, and is a major factor in the development of the global economic system in years to come. Study of this form of arbitration provides insight into the evolving shape of customary international law, the conflict between capital-importing and capital-exporting states, and the status of individuals in the international legal order. This seminar will provide students with a firm grounding in the history, present practice, and future implications of arbitration between foreign investors and host states, sanctioned by multilateral and bilateral investment treaties. Topics that will be covered in this course are the history of the treatment of aliens and investments under international law; an overview of the most important international treaties that give investors a right to arbitration of claims; the most important elements of procedure that characterize investor-state arbitration, including tribunal composition, jurisdiction, evidence, award and challenge or annulment; substantive law of investment arbitration, the standards that apply when a tribunal determines whether a breach of the treaty has occurred; and the future development of investor-state arbitration including the challenges of globalization and other stresses, the clash of capital-importing and capital-exporting countries, environmental protection and free trade, restrictions on state sovereignty, the construction of an international investment jurisprudence, the limits on arbitrability, and the expansion of multilateral investment protections worldwide. Active participation in discussion of the course materials is required.

Prerequisite: International Law I.

Recommended: International Commercial Arbitration

Note: Students may not withdraw from this class after the add/drop period ends without the permission of the professor.

LAW 676 v00 Investor-State Dispute Resolution Seminar

LL.M Seminar | 3 credit hours

The subject of investor-state disputes and their resolution lies at the cutting edge of international law, and is a major factor in the development of the global economic system in years to come. Study of this form of arbitration provides insight into the evolving shape of customary international law, the conflict between capital-importing and capital-exporting states, and the status of individuals in the international legal order. This seminar will provide students with a firm grounding in the history, present practice, and future implications of arbitration between foreign investors and host states, sanctioned by multilateral and bilateral investment treaties. Topics that will be covered in this course are the history of the treatment of aliens and investments under international law; an overview of the most important international treaties that give investors a right to arbitration of claims; the most important elements of procedure that characterize investor-state arbitration, including tribunal composition, jurisdiction, evidence, award and challenge or annulment; substantive law of investment arbitration, the standards that apply when a tribunal determines whether a breach of the treaty has occurred; and the future development of investor-state arbitration including the challenges of globalization and other stresses, the clash of capital-importing and capital-exporting countries, environmental protection and free trade, restrictions on state sovereignty, the construction of an international investment jurisprudence, the limits on arbitrability, and the expansion of multilateral investment protections worldwide. Active participation in discussion of the course materials is required.

Prerequisite: International Law I

Recommended: International Commercial Arbitration

Note: For the Spring section: FIRST CLASS ATTENDANCE IS MANDATORY.  Enrolled students must be in attendance at the start of the first class session in order to remain enrolled. Waitlisted students must be in attendance at the start of the first class session in order to remain eligible to be admitted off the waitlist.

Student who no longer wishes to remain enrolled will not be permitted to drop the class but may request a withdrawal BY PROFESSOR PERMISSION ONLY.

This course requires a paper. J.D. Students: this will fulfill the J.D. Upperclass Legal Writing Requirement.

LAW 292 v07 Law and Development

J.D. Course (cross-listed) | 3 credit hours

This three-credit survey course is designed to introduce students to the different dimensions of law and development, integrating legal, historical, academic, and practical models and approaches.  The course will cover a range of issues and substantive areas of law, including economic and social development and rule of law approaches; human rights law; comparative law; peace and security; international economic law (including trade, finance, aid, and investment);  labor, environmental, and health law; market regulation; institutional models for advancing law and development; gender; and sustainable development.  It will also examine the increasing role of technology and data in law and development and the connection between law and the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).  Throughout the semester, the course will explore how different areas of law address questions of equity, inclusiveness, vulnerability, and environmental sustainability.  There are no prerequisites for this course, and it is intended to be both an introduction to law and development and a complement to other course offerings at Georgetown Law.  

The course is divided into three parts.  The first part begins with an exploration of the foundations of law and development, including an examination of the issues, debates, and academic literature.  This portion of the course will examine the role of governments and institutions in law and development (including the World Bank, WTO, IMF, UN system, donor organizations, regional organizations, and others), as well as how rules are designed and implemented from the perspective of individual and community stakeholders.  Part I of the course will also highlight the evolution of different approaches, theories, and models within law and development, including economic approaches (structural change approaches, dependency theory, neoclassical/neoliberal approaches, endogenous growth theory, post-Washington consensus models, and others), promotion and criticism of rule of law approaches (legal pluralism, institutionalism and new institutional economics, constitutionalism, international vs. national law approaches, legal empowerment, informality, and others), and current movements such as law and political economy and TWAIL (Third World Approaches to International Law).   

The second part of the course will introduce students to the different substantive dimensions of law and development.  This segment will allow students to both understand the legal foundations of different aspects of law and development and explore intersections between different areas of law as they relate to development, highlighting the cross-cutting nature of law and development.  Topics will include human rights law, international economic law (finance, investment, and trade), conflict and resource control, gender and development, corruption and development, development assistance, and law and development aspects of health, environment, and climate change. 

The third part of the course will focus on issue-based and regional case studies, allowing students to apply what was covered in the first two parts of the course in different contexts and explore ways in which law has been – or could be – a driver for development.  Issue-focused case studies will include land tenure and contracts, labor, agriculture and food security, intellectual property rights, and data and development.  Regional case studies will include Africa, Asia (with some focus on China and India, among other countries), and Latin America.  In this part of the course, students will also assess which law and development approaches have been best suited to different circumstances, economies, cultures, and communities. 

Learning Objectives

The course has several interconnected learning objectives:

  • Understand the legal, historical, economic, and political context of different aspects of law and development, individually and in relation to each other;
  • Examine different normative approaches to law and development, globally and regionally;
  • Interpret academic research, relevant excerpts from international treaties, provisions in bilateral and regional agreements, and laws and regulations, building an understanding of the inter-connected nature of different legal instruments;
  • Assess law and development challenges facing governments and international institutions, identifying possible approaches and trade-offs;
  • Understand how economic, social, and sustainable development can be further incorporated into soft and hard law, as well as international, regional, and national law;
  • Introduce students to different roles for lawyers in the field of law and development; and
  • Equip students with the knowledge and tools to approach law as a tool for promoting social, economic, and sustainable development. 

LAW 1653 v00 Resolution of International Financial Crises Seminar

J.D. Seminar (cross-listed) | 2 credit hours

Overview

While the globalization of private capital markets has generated important welfare gains, it has also been responsible for episodes of financial instability, often with devastating consequences. The Course will analyze the underlying causes of international financial crises and assess the efforts of policy makers to mitigate their impact. The Course will be interdisciplinary in nature, focusing on the legal, financial and economic dimensions of these crises and the relevant policy responses. Key lessons will be distilled from an in-depth analysis of the most important episodes, including the Latin American Debt Crisis, the Asian Financial Crisis, Argentina’s default in 2001 and the crises precipitated by the Great Recession of 2008, including the Eurozone Crisis. We will also conduct a simulation, with students playing the roles of the various policy makers seeking to contain and ultimately resolve the crisis.

The Course will analyze both the common patterns of the previous international financial crises and the extent to which they have differed. In that context, the Course will investigate how the dynamics of these crises have been driven both by the evolution of credit markets (including the transition from bank lending to bond issuance) and changes in the underlying legal framework that supports these markets. The Course will analyze the competing considerations faced by policy makers as they seek to mitigate the impact of a crisis – often with large scale financial assistance – without increasing the risk of future crises through the creation of excessive moral hazard. In that context, the Course will review in some detail the role played by the International Monetary Fund in managing these crises.      

Learning Objectives

By the end of the course, students will have gained an understanding of how global financial markets have evolved over the past 40 years and how this evolution has both promoted welfare and created significant financial instability. They will learn how the relevant legal frameworks have interacted with this evolution to shape creditor incentives, with a focus on regulatory design, contractual provisions and litigation strategies. Through in-depth case studies, they will gain insight into how public policy makers have struggled to both contain the impact of these crises while, at the same time, introducing reforms to prevent them from recurring. In particular, they will gain an understanding of the legal, policy and governance framework of the IMF and the role it plays as a financial fire fighter. More generally, they will gain an understanding of the challenges faced by policy makers when addressing a systemic crisis, with a focus on the key actors, namely: (a) the governments of the countries experiencing the crisis, (b) private creditors and (c) the IMF. Existing and former officials will participate in a number of classes to share their own perspectives regarding the key lessons to be distilled from previous episodes.

LAW 780 v01 U.S. and International Customs Law

LL.M Course (cross-listed) | 2 credit hours

As international trade and commerce have increased over the years, customs law has become increasingly more internationalized, important and complex. This course will examine and provide a basic introduction to the rules and principles relating to both U.S. and international customs law. This will include an examination of those rules and principles relating to tariff classification, customs valuation, rules of origin, border enforcement of intellectual property rights and regional trading arrangements. International efforts to facilitate trade and to harmonize and simplify customs laws and procedures will also be examined together with international organizations dealing with customs laws and procedures (such as the World Trade Organization and the World Customs Organization).

Customs authorities are the guardians of national borders. The role of customs authorities in combating terrorism and criminal activity and in securing and safeguarding national borders will also be examined.

No prerequisites.

Mutually Excluded Courses: Students may not receive credit for both this course and Customs Law.

LAW 962 v03 U.S. Export Controls and Economic Sanctions

LL.M Course (cross-listed) | 2 credit hours

Understanding and dealing with U.S. export control and sanction laws have become increasingly important skills for lawyers advising clients who compete in the global economy, including manufacturers, service enterprises, financial institutions, and companies licensing their technology abroad. This course surveys the federal laws and implementing regulations governing the export and re-export of goods, services, technology and software from the United States or by persons subject to U.S. jurisdiction, the extraterritorial reach of re-export controls, prosecution strategies, restrictions on dealings with or in sanctioned countries, prohibitions against dealing with blacklisted parties, and other sanctions that apply to non-U.S. companies and individuals. We also will examine the policies underlying these rules, which are designed to address ever-changing and developing threats to the United States, including Russian aggression in the Ukraine, the nuclear threat posed by Iran, civil war in Syria, missile development in North Korea, and conventional military tensions between the United States and China.

The course is designed to impart the practical skill sets you will need to use and understand the various complex regulatory systems that implement national security rules related to technology and high-tech transfers, including restrictions on release of technology to non-U.S. persons, foreign policy restrictions and licensing requirements. The regulations are implemented under various statutes, such as the International Emergency Economic Powers Act, Trading with the Enemy Act, Arms Export Control Act, and Atomic Energy Act, and regulations issued by various federal agencies, including the U.S. Departments of Commerce, Treasury, State, and Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. We will address each regulatory regime as well as the limited body of relevant case law.

In addition, the course will address multilateral export control regimes, the role they play in shaping U.S. trade laws, the impact of new regimes (such as those under the Chemical Weapons Convention) and the direction of U.S. export controls and sanctions policy in response to the changing threats. We will focus on the U.S. Government’s use of embargoes and other economic sanctions to achieve national security and foreign policy goals of target countries. This course also will provide the skill sets necessary to communicate effectively with licensing agencies and the Defense Department regarding key issues of agency jurisdiction and classification and how these issues affect direct investment in the United States as regulated by the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States.

The course also will focus on the enforcement environment, including the trend of ever-increasing fines, the use of extradition, and imprisonment. We will discuss defense strategies and the potential for global settlements with the Departments of Justice, State, Treasury, and Commerce.

Finally, the course will emphasize developing the working knowledge necessary for hands-on practice and problem-solving in this field. In addition, the course will provide skills sets to assess proposed legislation and regulations in depth, as well as advocacy skills related to legislation and rulemaking.

Recommended: Administrative Law; International Law I.

LAW 872 v00 World Trade Organization: Agreements, Negotiations & Disputes

LL.M Course (cross-listed) | 2 credit hours

The course analyzes the World Trade Organization (WTO) and its agreements, including the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), and the substance and status of negotiations to amend the agreements. It concentrates on the coverage of the agreements, based on their text and interpretive guidance from key dispute settlement decisions. The course also reviews the relevant economic, policy and legal aspects of the international trading system.

LAW 014 v01 Current Issues in Transnational (Private International) Law Seminar

J.D. Seminar (cross-listed) | 2-3 credit hours

This seminar provides an introduction to the increasingly important field of private international law as well as an opportunity to explore in depth specific issues now under active consideration in the various international and regional organizations working on the development, codification and harmonization of private international law. Beyond the “classic” PIL questions of jurisdiction, choice of law, judicial assistance and enforcement of judgments, we will explore such topics as international family law (including international adoption, abduction and enforcement of child support and family maintenance), alternative dispute settlement mechanisms (including international mediation and commercial and investment arbitration), as well as the cross-border aspects of such topics as data protection and privacy, bankruptcy/insolvency, secured transactions, securities law, intellectual property, transport of goods by sea, letters of credit, leasing law, consumer protection, and even wills and trusts. You may write your papers in any of these areas (among others).  All students will be expected to choose a topic to research, write and present to the class.

This course requires a paper and an oral presentation. It is open to J.D. and LL.M. students. For J.D. students who choose the 3 credit “writing seminar” option, the objective will be to research and write analytical papers of publishable quality on discrete topics of current importance in transnational practice. Students will be required to satisfy the WR requirement including (1) selection of a paper topic approved by the professor, (2) submission of an outline, followed by feedback from the professor, (3) submission of a draft paper of at least 6,000 words exclusive of footnotes, followed by feedback from the professor, and (4) submission of a final paper of at least 6,000 words exclusive of footnotes, incorporating the professor’s suggested revisions. The paper must use legal forms of citation, where appropriate.

Learning goals for this course:

Familiarity with substance of "Private International Law", where it is developed and how; understanding of the relationship between international and domestic law; ability to research effectively in the field; ability to write coherently and present conclusions orally. 

Recommended: International Law I.

Note: This course requires a paper. Students must register for the 3 credit section of the course if they wish to write a paper fulfilling the Upperclass Legal Writing Requirement. The paper requirements of the 2 credit section will not fulfill the Upperclass Legal Writing Requirement.

LAW 1260 v00 International Economic Law Practicum (Project-Based Practicum)

J.D. Practicum | 4 credit hours

In this project-based practicum course focused on international economic law, primarily international trade and investment law, students will participate in a seminar and will work throughout the semester on a project done on behalf of a developing country government, an international organization, an NGO or an SME under the supervision of their professor(s) and in conjunction with expert mentors. Students will participate in a weekly seminar with two-hour sessions (during some weeks, primarily at the start of the semester and around the middle and end of the term, the seminar meets two or three times, other weeks, the seminar does not meet and only team meetings take place) and carry out 10 hours/week of project work under the direction of the course professors.

SEMINAR: This practicum offers a unique opportunity to thoroughly analyze international trade and investment law, as well as broader issues of international economic law, and jurisprudence through a combination of practice and theory. The practicum has three goals. First, to enhance students’ substantive legal knowledge of international economic law, not only through traditional in-class teaching but also through hands-on work on a specific legal project of high practical importance for their “beneficiary.” Second, the practicum aims to improve students’ professional skills to become successful lawyers, including the ability to analyze complex legal problems, to apply the law to a set of facts, to interact with beneficiaries, to work in groups with other lawyers across cultures and language barriers, to convincingly make oral presentations, to write legal memos or submissions, and to adapt the explanation of legal expertise to a diverse audience. Third, the practicum aims to stimulate personal skills and aspirations of students and to make them aware of professional opportunities in the international law field and discover new challenges. Through interactions with students from diverse background and a diversity of “beneficiaries”, often from other countries and legal systems, participants will build inter-personal skills, learn about other legal, economic, and social systems, and experience the challenges and needs of a wide variety of stakeholders affected by international economic law, extending well beyond traditional issues and stakeholders.

PROJECT WORK: Students will work in small groups (“project teams”) and under the close supervision of one or more Professors ("Supervising Professors"), invited experts (“Mentors”) and the Teaching Assistant (TA) on specific legal questions related to international economic law (IEL) coming from “real clients” (“beneficiaries”) such as international organizations, governments, SMEs or NGOs. In addition, introductory sessions by Mentors will be held to provide substantive background to the respective topics, as well as sessions to improve research and legal writing skills. At the end of the semester, the groups will submit written legal memos or other work products and orally present their projects in class in the presence of the beneficiary and other invited guests. To get an idea of the types of projects done in previous years, see www.tradelab.org.

The practicum is part of the broader TradeLab network and operates in collaboration with TradeLab (www.tradelab.org) to enable beneficiaries to submit projects, to facilitate the operation of the teams and to promote the completed work to the public. TradeLab is an online platform that allows countries, NGOs and other smaller stakeholders easy and smart access to legal talents in the field of trade and investment law, allowing these actors to reap the full development benefits of global trade and investment rules by making WTO, preferential trade and bilateral investment treaties work for everyone.

Prerequisite:

Students must complete a basic trade/WTO or investment law course before applying. J.D. students must complete the required first-year program prior to enrolling (part-time and interdivisional transfer students may enroll prior to completing Criminal Justice, Property, or their first-year elective).

Mutually Excluded Courses:

Students may not concurrently enroll in this practicum course and a clinic or another practicum course. Students may concurrently enroll in this practicum course and an externship.

Note:

This practicum course is open to LL.M. students, space permitting.

This practicum may be suitable for evening students who can commit to attending class and participating in 10 hours/week of project work.

THIS PRACTICUM REQUIRES PROFESSOR PERMISSION TO ENROLL. Please send a CV, and an email indicating which trade/WTO or investment law courses you have taken, why you are interested in taking the Practicum, and what it is you think you can add to the teams, to Kemi-Pedro Yarrow at (op92@georgetown.edu) by Wednesday, October 5, 2022. After October 5, please contact Prof. Katrin Kuhlmann to inquire whether spaces remain available; if so, students will be admitted on a rolling basis at that time. 

This is a four-credit course. Two credits will be awarded for the two-hour weekly seminar and two credits will be awarded for approximately 10 hours of project work per week, for a minimum of 11 weeks. Both the seminar and the project work will be graded.

Students who enroll in this course will be automatically enrolled in both the seminar and project components and may not take either component separately. After Add/Drop, a student who wishes to withdraw from a practicum course must obtain permission from the faculty member and the Assistant Dean for Experiential Education. The Assistant Dean will grant such withdrawal requests only when remaining enrolled in the practicum would cause significant hardship for the student. A student who is granted permission to withdraw will be withdrawn from both the seminar and project components.

Default attendance rule for all practicum courses (unless the professor indicates otherwise): Regular and punctual attendance is required at all practicum seminars and fieldwork placements. Students in project-  based practicum courses are similarly required to devote the requisite number of hours to their project. If a student must miss a seminar, fieldwork, or project work, he or she must speak to the professor as soon as possible to discuss the absence. Unless the professor indicates otherwise, a student with more than one unexcused absence from the practicum seminar (out of 13 total seminar sessions), or one week of unexcused absences from the fieldwork or project work (out of a total of 11 weeks of fieldwork or project work), may receive a lower grade or, at the professor’s discretion, may be withdrawn from the practicum course. 
 

LAW 240 v00 International Negotiations Seminar

J.D. Seminar (cross-listed) | 2 credit hours

This seminar seeks to develop skills and knowledge to participate in negotiations and in particular international business negotiations. Approximately a third of course time is devoted to the negotiating process and analysis of negotiation principles and dynamics. Another third is spent on the cultural, practical, legal and strategic elements of international business transactions. The balance is spent on a series of "mock" negotiations. Students, individually and in groups, experiment with different negotiating techniques and fact situations of increasing complexity. The course requirement is principally satisfied through preparation of a comprehensive negotiated agreement and follow-up memorandum. Heavy emphasis is placed on class participation, including the negotiations. The final negotiating problem requires substantial team work with others, including strategy, analysis, and preparation. Negotiations are carried on both inside and outside normal class time.

Recommended: Contracts.

Mutually Excluded Courses: Students may not receive credit for this course and the International Negotiations Seminar (LAWJ/G-958) or International Negotiations (LAWJ/G-3029) in the graduate program, or International Business Negotiations.

Note: FIRST CLASS ATTENDANCE IS MANDATORY. Enrolled students must be in attendance at the start of the first class session in order to remain enrolled. Waitlisted students must be in attendance at the start of the first class session in order to remain eligible to be admitted off the waitlist.

Students may not withdraw from this class after the add/drop period ends without the permission of the professor.

LAW 958 v00 International Negotiations Seminar

LL.M Seminar (cross-listed) | 2 credit hours

After introductory lectures on negotiation theory and practice, the seminar students will be divided into teams for a series of simulated negotiations covering government-to-government, government-private and transnational private negotiations.  Student performance in these negotiations and class discussions will comprise most of the course grade; no research paper or examination is required.

Mutually Excluded Courses: Students may receive credit for this course and International Business Negotiations. Students may NOT receive credit for both this course and International Negotiations or the J.D. course, International Negotiations Seminar.

Note: FIRST CLASS ATTENDANCE IS MANDATORY.  Enrolled students must be in attendance at the start of the first class session in order to remain enrolled. Waitlisted students must be in attendance at the start of the first class session in order to remain eligible to be admitted off the waitlist.

LAW 959 v00 International Trade, Development & the Common Good

LL.M Seminar (cross-listed) | 2-3 credit hours

This course will examine the connection between trade law and development, including aspects of international and regional trade agreements, comparative law, and diverse areas of market regulation at the national level. Overall, the seminar will highlight the role of law and regulation as a driver for sustainable development and inclusive growth and link broader legal frameworks and policy debates with the needs of individuals and enterprises. It will engage students in ways in which economic law can help encourage sustainable and inclusive development and will assess challenges associated with legal and regulatory capacity and the uneven implementation of laws in practice. Cross-cutting and inter-disciplinary approaches in the field, such as socio-legal approaches, human rights, food security, the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and gender and trade will also be discussed throughout the seminar.

The seminar will take place in three phases. In Phase I, the seminar will explore the historical and institutional relationship between trade and development, including World Trade Organization (WTO) disciplines, regional trade agreements (RTAs), and other relevant international legal frameworks.  Phase II will focus on different issues and will cover a number of substantive aspects of trade and development in depth, all of which impact stakeholders and communities and hold greater potential to contribute to the common good.  Specific areas of focus will include domestic market regulation and investment, non-tariff measures, regulation of services, trade facilitation, agriculture, labor and environment, intellectual property rights, gender, and digital trade.  Phase III of the course will consist of an in-class exercise to apply the theory and substantive legal approaches discussed in Parts I and II in the context to practical trade and development challenges. 

Readings will be drawn from a variety of viewpoints and sources – law review articles, white papers, academic journals, newspapers and magazines, and excerpts from books – and will cut across trade and economic law, inclusive economic development, and business.  The readings will highlight different aspects of the legal and regulatory environment in the context of encouraging sustainable and inclusive development globally and at the grassroots level. Discussion questions will be provided for each session, which can be used as the basis for class preparation

The course will also incorporate short, practical case studies that illustrate how different issues in trade, development, and economic regulation can be applied from the perspective of different stakeholders (entrepreneurs, countries, and communities).  Seminar members will be asked to assume roles in discussion of these case studies, which will count towards class participation and lay the groundwork for the final paper.  Questions to guide the case study analysis will also be provided. 

In addition to the readings assigned for each session, optional background readings will be included for students wishing to explore a topic in greater depth (additional background reading is recommended for students who have not taken a trade law course, but the course does not have any prerequisites). 

Note: Only the 3-CR section will fulfill the WTO & International Trade Certificate List C requirement.

LAW 1218 v00 Trade, Money, and Trust: The Law and Policy of Globalization Seminar

J.D. Seminar (cross-listed) | 3 credit hours

Successful management of globalization has emerged as the central challenge of our time. Globalization has been blamed for many of our social and economic problems from inequality to stagnant growth. The international regulatory failures exposed by the financial crisis of 2008-2009 have called into question not only the regulatory framework for financial stability, but also the entire framework of international norms and institutions known as Bretton Woods that have been the pillars of global economic regulation. The accompanying collapse in public trust in government experts and private elites has complicated efforts to address these challenges. Populist candidates have swept elections, particularly in the US and UK, based on platforms to reverse the course of international integration. Meanwhile, China and Russia have doubled down on leaders that embrace a return to state controlled economies and traditional notions of regional hegemony. Are we at an historical turning point characterized by GLEXIT – the abandonment of globalization – or will these challenges lead to a Globalization 2.0?

The purpose of this seminar is to look at the role of international economic law in managing globalization, both in terms of extracting the benefits and in addressing the consequences, particularly those negative effects that have fed the backlash. The focus of the seminar will be on the central regulatory regimes governing international economic activity: trade, monetary, investment, finance, competition, tax, sovereign debt and corruption. We will examine the fundamental character and role of legal norms, regulatory systems and international institutions in a world characterized by interdependence and conflict.

This is a research seminar in which the initial eight weekly classes will present a survey of regulatory regimes designed to give students a framework for what have historically been somewhat distinct “silos” but which each illustrate the recurring tensions between fragmentation and coherence. We invite student involvement in the specific topics in the field on which we focus. Each student will be asked to provide short papers responding to the readings for each of the initial sessions. Students will be expected to write a research paper on a relevant topic under the guidance of one of the professors and to make a short presentation to the class during the last third of the course. In their research paper, students will be expected to identify a contemporary, global economic regulatory issue and propose solutions drawing on insights from the seminar (and their broader studies) to analyze the problem, propose and defend possible solutions.

The seminar will be taught by professors with a wide range of experience in academia, private practice and government service. Distinguished outside experts will also be called upon to address particular topics within this framework. 

A number of broad themes will be developed to help unravel the complexity of global regulation:

  • What is the role of legal norms in creating efficient and sustainable global markets? Do some problems lend themselves to different types of norms (e.g. soft versus hard law)? What about governance, the formality of legal norms (and institutions) and the role of national sovereignty and subsidiarity?
  • Why do the different global economic regulatory regimes look so different? Why has trade evolved with an advanced set of norms, dispute settlement and enforcement?
  • How have crises and systemic failures contributed to the development of legal regimes? Do crises lead to sustainable and effective regulatory regimes?
  • What role does trust play in the character of legal regimes? Can international economic law be viewed as the objectification of trust? How can trust be sustained when global issues engage citizenry across the most diverse context imaginable?

Recommended: Students may want to familiarize themselves with basic principles of international economic law and areas of international regulation such as international trade, investment and financial regulation. The seminar will include both JD and LLM students and we encourage students with a range of exposure to the underlying subject matter. For insight into the kinds of issues the seminar will address, students are encouraged to review the material in Cottier, Jackson and Lastra, International Law in Financial Regulation and Monetary Affairs, Oxford University Press (2012). Students may also find useful the PBS Documentary, The Ascent of Money; A Financial History of the World, written and presented by Niall Ferguson which is available online at http://www.pbs.org/show/ascent-of-money/.